1Brain Nerve 2010 Dec 62: 1315-22
Title[Molecular mechanism and mental function of postnatal neurogenesis].
AbstractPostnatal neurogenesis has been observed in two brain regions: the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, among vertebrates including human. Accumulating evidence has indicated the molecular mechanisms commonly underlying embryonic and adult neurogenesis. Genetic factors essential for neural development, i.e., Pax6, Fabp7, Sox2, Wnt3, NOTCH1, etc., are also expressed in adult neurogenic regions. Adult neurogenesis, however, is distinct from embryonic neurogenesis in that the former is activity dependent; environmental stimulation modulates the entire processes of adult neurogenesis. In the hippocampus, physical exercise and cognitive stimuli robustly increase the proliferation of precursor cells, whereas physical/psychosocial stress decreases the proliferation of newborn neurons. Thus, adult neurogenesis is intriguingly regulated by several genetic and environmental factors. Reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis during the infantile and adult stages has been observed in some animal models of mental illness such as schizophrenia and major depression, implicating that postnatal neurogenesis may contribute to a part of the symptoms of mental illness. In this review, we describe the molecular mechanisms and functional significance of postnatal neurogenesis.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016 Feb 19: -1
TitleQuetiapine Ameliorates Schizophrenia-Like Behaviors and Protects Myelin Integrity in Cuprizone Intoxicated Mice: The Involvement of Notch Signaling Pathway.
AbstractWhite matter disturbances and myelin impairment are key features of schizophrenia. The antipsychotic drug quetiapine can promote the maturation of oligodendrocytes, but the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown.
The schizophrenia-like behaviors, degrees of demyelination, and levels of Notch signaling molecules in forebrains of adult male C57BL/6 mice were examined after fed with cuprizone (0.2% wt/wt) in the presence or absence of 10mg/kg/d quetiapine for 6 weeks. These parameters were also observed after the transcranial injection of Notch signaling inhibitor MW167 (1mM) daily during the last week of the treatment period.
Quetiapine ameliorated the schizophrenia-like behaviors and decreased expression of myelin basic protein and inhibition of Notch signaling molecules, such as NOTCH1, Hes1, and Hes5, in the forebrain that induced by cuprizone. These beneficial effects of quetiapine were abolished by MW167.
The antipsychotic and myelin protective effects of quetiapine are mediated by Notch signaling in a mouse model of cuprizone-induced demyelination associated with schizophrenia-like behaviors. The Notch pathway might therefore be a novel target for the development of antipsychotic drugs.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia