1Psychiatry Res 2011 Feb 185: 358-62
TitleIntron 12 in NTRK3 is associated with bipolar disorder.
AbstractBased on the important role of neurotrophic factors in brain development and plasticity and reports of association between schizophrenia and the gene neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 3 (NTRK3), we investigated associations of bipolar disorder with polymorphisms in NTRK3. Recently, our group reported evidence for a possible association of NTRK3 polymorphisms with hippocampal function and schizophrenia. In the present study, we used a homogenous Norwegian case-control sample (the TOP study) consisting of 194 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 336 healthy controls genotyped on the Affymetrix Genome-wide Human SNP Array 6.0. In total 149 markers were investigated for SNP-disease association. Polymorphisms in over 20 markers were nominally associated with bipolar disorder, covering intron 5 to intron 12. Interestingly, our markers appeared to be located close or within the linkage regions reported in schizophrenia, early-onset major depressive disorder and eating disorder, supporting the hypothesis that some genes influence risk beyond traditional diagnostic boundaries.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Neuroimage 2013 Nov 82: 146-53
TitleRelation between variants in the neurotrophin receptor gene, NTRK3, and white matter integrity in healthy young adults.
AbstractThe NTRK3 gene (also known as TRKC) encodes a high affinity receptor for the neurotrophin 3'-nucleotidase (NT3), which is implicated in oligodendrocyte and myelin development. We previously found that white matter integrity in young adults is related to common variants in genes encoding neurotrophins and their receptors. This underscores the importance of neurotrophins for white matter development. NTRK3 variants are putative risk factors for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder hoarding, suggesting that some NTRK3 variants may affect the brain. To test this, we scanned 392 healthy adult twins and their siblings (mean age, 23.6 2.2 years; range: 20-29 years) with 105-gradient 4-Tesla diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We identified 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NTRK3 gene that have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. We used a multi-SNP model, adjusting for family relatedness, age, and sex, to relate these variants to voxelwise fractional anisotropy (FA) - a DTI measure of white matter integrity. FA was optimally predicted (based on the highest false discovery rate critical p), by five SNPs (rs1017412, rs2114252, rs16941261, rs3784406, and rs7176429; overall FDR critical p=0.028). Gene effects were widespread and included the corpus callosum genu and inferior longitudinal fasciculus - regions implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders and previously associated with other neurotrophin-related genetic variants in an overlapping sample of subjects. NTRK3 genetic variants, and neurotrophins more generally, may influence white matter integrity in brain regions implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
3Brain Behav. Immun. 2013 May 30: 168-75
TitleEpigenetic changes at gene promoters in response to immune activation in utero.
AbstractIncreasing evidence suggests that maternal infection increases the risk of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism in offspring. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with these effects are unclear. Here, we have studied epigenetic gene regulation in mice exposed to non-specific immune activation elicited by polyI:C injection to pregnant dams. Using Western blot analysis, we detected global hypoacetylation of histone H3, at lysine residues 9 and 14, and histone H4, at lysine residue 8, in the cortex from juvenile (?24days of age) offspring exposed to polyI:C in utero, but not from adult (3months of age) offspring, which exhibit significant behavioral abnormalities. Accordingly, we detected robust deficits in the expression of genes associated with neuronal development, synaptic transmission and immune signaling in the cortex of polyI:C-exposed juvenile mice. In particular, we found that several genes in the glutamate receptor signaling pathway, including Gria1 and Slc17a7, showed decreases in promoter-specific histone acetylation, and corresponding gene expression deficits, in polyI:C-exposed offspring at both juvenile and adult ages. In contrast, the expression of these same genes, in addition to Disc1 and NTRK3, was elevated in the hippocampus of juvenile mice, in concordance with elevated levels of promoter-specific histone acetylation. We suggest that these early epigenetic changes contribute to the delayed behavioral abnormalities that are observed in adult animals after exposure to polyI:C, and which resemble symptoms seen in schizophrenia and related disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
4J Psychiatry Neurosci 2014 Nov 39: 386-96
TitleInvestigation of the involvement of MIR185 and its target genes in the development of schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder of unclear etiology. The strongest known genetic risk factor is the 22q11.2 microdeletion. Research has yet to confirm which genes within the deletion region are implicated in schizophrenia. The minimal 1.5 megabase deletion contains MIR185, which encodes microRNA 185.
We determined miR-185 expression in embryonic and adult mouse brains. Common and rare variants at this locus were then investigated using a human genetics approach. First, we performed gene-based analyses for MIR185 common variants and target genes using Psychiatric Genomics Consortium genome-wide association data. Second, MIR185 was resequenced in German patients (n = 1000) and controls (n = 500). We followed up promising variants by genotyping an additional European sample (patients, n = 3598; controls, n = 4082).
In situ hybridization in mice revealed miR-185 expression in brain regions implicated in schizophrenia. Gene-based tests revealed association between common variants in 3 MIR185 target genes (ATAT1, SH3PXD2A, NTRK3) and schizophrenia. Further analyses in mice revealed overlapping expression patterns for these target genes and miR-185. Resequencing identified 2 rare patient-specific novel variants flanking MIR185. However, follow-up genotyping provided no further evidence of their involvement in schizophrenia.
Power to detect rare variant associations was limited.
Human genetic analyses generated no evidence of the involvement of MIR185 in schizophrenia. However, the expression patterns of miR-185 and its target genes in mice, and the genetic association results for the 3 target genes, suggest that further research into the involvement of miR-185 and its downstream pathways in schizophrenia is warranted.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
5Genetika 2015 Jul 51: 799-811
Title[The Role of Neurotrophins and Neurexins Genes in the Risk of Paranoid Schizophrenia in Russians and Tatars].
Abstractschizophrenia affects about 1% of the population. Its etiology is not fully understood. Environmental conditions certainly contribute to the development of schizophrenia, but the determining factor is genetic predisposition: the coefficient of heritability of schizophrenia is about 80%, which is typical for the most highly heritable multifactorial diseases. Polymorphic loci of genes of enzymes and receptors involved in the processes of neuroprotection and neurotrophia play significant role in the development of this disease. In this paper we investigated 48 polymorphic variants of genes of the neurotrophins and neurexins family (BDNF, NTRK2, NTRK3, NGF, NXPH1, and NRXN1) in Russian and Tatar cases and in a control group living in the Republic of Bashkortostan. The results of this study confirm the important role of neurotrophin and neurexin genes in paranoid schizophrenia development.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia