1J. Neuroimmunol. 2003 Aug 141: 155-64
TitleAutoantibodies against four kinds of neurotransmitter receptors in psychiatric disorders.
AbstractThere is a hypothesis that autoimmune abnormalities in neurotransmitter receptors might cause some psychiatric disorders. Using a sensitive radioligand assay, we detected serum autoantibodies to recombinant human muscarinic cholinergic receptor 1 (CHRM1, 34.4%), mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1, 13.1%), 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (HTR1A, 7.4%), and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2, 4.9%) in 122 psychiatric patients. Positive antibodies to CHRM1 were found in 34.1%, 34.9%, 33.3%, and 9.1% of patients with schizophrenic disorders (n=44), mood disorders (n=63), other psychiatric disorders (n=15) and autoimmune diseases (n=33), respectively. All three patients with neuroleptic maliganant syndrome had high activities of autoantibodies to CHRM1, OPRM1, and/or HTR1A. Our data suggest that autoimmunity to neurotransmitter receptors might be associated with the induction of psychiatric symptoms and have some relation to neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
2J. Mol. Neurosci. 2010 May 41: 219-22
TitleA118G polymorphism of OPRM1 gene is associated with schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia is ranked among multifactor diseases in whose pathogenesis, besides environmental factors, an interplay of functional polymorphisms of a larger number of candidate genes is involved. Neurodevelopmental abnormities are among the most accepted hypotheses in the etiology of schizophrenia. Recently, the role of oligodendrocytes in the development of the cortex has been cited repeatedly. During their various phases of differentiation oligodendrocytes present on their surfaces diverse receptors, among others the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1). The study was focused on the relationship between the functional A118G polymorphism of the OPRM1 gene (rs1799971) and schizophrenia in groups of 130 male patients and 452 male controls. An association study revealed yet unpublished statistically significant difference of allelic and genotypic frequencies between the control and patient groups. According to our present knowledge, we assume that the OPRM1 gene polymorphism can influence the myelination of CNS neurons through regulations of expression of OPRM1 receptors on surfaces of oligodendrocytes. The neuronal myelination seems to be one of the important factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
3Pharmacogenomics 2011 Sep 12: 1305-20
TitlePharmacogenomics of the human -opioid receptor.
AbstractThe -opioid receptor is a primary target for clinically important opioid analgesics, including morphine, fentanyl and methadone. Many genetic variations have been identified in the human -opioid receptor MOP gene (OPRM1), and their implications have been reported in the effects of opioid drugs and susceptibility to drug dependence. Interestingly, agonistic and antagonistic opioid effects are inversely associated with the A118G polymorphism genotype. The A118G polymorphism may also be associated with substance dependence and susceptibility to other disorders, including epilepsy and schizophrenia. The IVS1+A21573G, IVS1-T17286C, and TAA+A5359G polymorphisms in the OPRM1 gene may be associated with alcohol, opioid and tobacco dependence, respectively. However, some studies have failed to confirm the correlations between the polymorphisms and opioid effects and substance dependence. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of OPRM1 polymorphisms.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
4BMC Psychiatry 2013 -1 13: 107
TitleAssociation study of OPRM1 polymorphisms with Schizophrenia in Han Chinese population.
AbstractThe expression of ?-opioid receptor has important role in cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ). The results of studies about the association of polymorphisms of ?-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) with SZ were inconsistent.
We conducted a case-control study to investigate the genetic association between OPRM1 polymorphisms and SZ among the Han chinese population. 264 SZ patients and 264 age-matched control subjects were recruited. Four SNPs of OPRM1 were successfully genotyped by using PCR-RFLP.
Of four polymorphisms, rs1799971 and rs2075572 were shown to associate with SZ. Compared with the A allele of rs1799971 and C allele of rs2075572, the G allele of rs1799971 and rs2075572 was associated with an almost 0.46-fold risk (OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.357-0.59, P<0.01) and 0.7-fold risk (OR=0.707, 95% CI: 0.534-0.937, P=0.015) of the occurrence of SZ,. When subjects were divided by gender, rs1799971 remained significant difference only in males (OR=0.309, 95% CI: 0.218-0.439 for G allele, P<0.01), and rs2075572 only in females (OR=0.399, 95% CI: 0.246-0.648 for G allele, P<0.01). In secondary analysis with subsets of patients, the G allele of rs1799971 (compared to the A allele) was associated with a decreased risk of all patients and male patients with apathy symptoms (OR=0.086, 95% CI: 0.048-0.151, P=0.01; OR=0.083, 95% CI: 0.045-0.153, P<0.01), and the G allele of rs2075572 (compared to the C allele) was associated with a decreased risk of all patients and female patients with positive family history (OR=0.468, 95% CI: 0.309-0.71, P<0.01; OR=0.34, 95% CI: 0.195-0.593, P<0.01). In addition, haplotype analysis revealed that two SNP haplotypes (A-C-C-G and G-C-C-A) were associated with decreased risks of SZ (P<0.01). The other two (G-C-C-G and G-G-C-G) with increased risks of SZ (P<0.01).
The present study demonstrated for the first time that the OPRM1 polymorphism may be a risk factor for schizophrenia in the Han Chinese. Further studies are needed to give a global view of this polymorphism in pathogenesis of schizophrenia in a large-scale sample, family-based association design or well-defined subgroups of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
5Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses 2014 Jun -1: 1-27
TitleGenetic Variation of the Mu Opioid Receptor (OPRM1) and Dopamine D2 Receptor (DRD2) is Related to Smoking Differences in Patients with Schizophrenia but not Bipolar Disorder.
AbstractIt is not known why mentally ill persons smoke excessively. Inasmuch as endogenous opioid and dopaminergic systems are involved in smoking reinforcement, it is important to study mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G (rs1799971), dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) Taq1A (rs1800497) genotypes, and sex differences among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Smokers and nonsmokers with schizophrenia (177) and bipolar disorder (113) were recruited and genotyped. They were classified into three groups: current smoker, former smoker, and never smoker by tobacco smoking status self-report. The number of cigarettes smoked per day was used as the major tobacco smoking parameter. In patients with schizophrenia, tobacco smoking prevalence was greater in males than in females as expected, but women had greater daily cigarette consumption (p<0.01). Subjects with schizophrenia who had the OPRM1 *G genotype smoked more cigarettes per day than the AA allele carriers with schizophrenia (p<0.05). DRD2 Taq1A genotype differences had no effect on the number of cigarettes smoked per day. However, female smokers with schizophrenia who were GG homozygous with the DRD2 receptor smoked more than the *A male smokers with schizophrenia (p<0.05). In bipolar patients, there were no OPRM1 and DRD2 Taq1A genotype differences in smoking status. There also were no sex differences for smoking behavior among the bipolar patients. The results of this study indicate that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the less functional mu opioid receptor increases tobacco smoking in patients with schizophrenia. Alteration of DRD2 receptor function also increased smoking behavior in females with schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic