1J. Neurosci. Res. 2004 Sep 77: 858-66
PMID15334603
TitleMicroarray analysis of postmortem temporal cortex from patients with schizophrenia.
AbstractTo examine molecular mechanisms associated with schizophrenia this study measured expression of approximately 12,000 genes in the middle temporal gyrus from 12 subjects with schizophrenia and 14 matched normal controls. Among the most consistent changes in genes with robust expression were significant decreases in the expression of myelination-related genes MAG, PLLP (TM4SF11), PLP1, ERBB3 in subjects with schizophrenia. There was also altered expression of genes regulating neurodevelopment (TRAF4, Neurod1, histone deacetylase 3), a circadian pacemaker (PER1), and several other genes involved in regulation of chromatin function and signaling mechanisms. These findings support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in oligodendroglia and provide initial evidence suggesting a role for epigenetic mechanisms and altered circadian rhythms in this disorder.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
2Mol. Psychiatry 2005 Mar 10: 309-22
PMID15303102
TitleTranscriptional profiling reveals evidence for signaling and oligodendroglial abnormalities in the temporal cortex from patients with major depressive disorder.
AbstractMajor depressive disorder is one of the most common and devastating psychiatric disorders. To identify candidate mechanisms for major depressive disorder, we compared gene expression in the temporal cortex from 12 patients with major depressive disorder and 14 matched controls using Affymetrix HgU95A microarrays. Significant expression changes were revealed in families of genes involved in neurodevelopment, signal transduction and cell communication. Among these, the expression of 17 genes related to oligodendrocyte function was significantly (P < 0.05, fold change > 1.4) decreased in patients with major depressive disorder. Eight of these 17 genes encode structural components of myelin (CNP, MAG, MAL, MOG, MOBP, PMP22, PLLP, PLP1). Five other genes encode enzymes involved in the synthesis of myelin constituents (ASPA, UGT8), or are essential in regulation of myelin formation (ENPP2, EDG2, TF, KLK6). One gene, that is, SOX10, encodes a transcription factor regulating other myelination-related genes. OLIG2 is a transcription factor present exclusively in oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursors. Another gene, ERBB3, is involved in oligodendrocyte differentiation. In addition to myelination-related genes, there were significant changes in multiple genes involved in axonal growth/synaptic function. These findings suggest that major depressive disorder may be associated with changes in cell communication and signal transduction mechanisms that contribute to abnormalities in oligodendroglia and synaptic function. Taken together with other studies, these findings indicate that major depressive disorder may share common oligodendroglial abnormalities with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
3Neurosci. Lett. 2005 Mar 375: 207-10
PMID15694262
TitleA family-based association study of PLP1 and schizophrenia.
AbstractRecently, proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) has been identified as downregulated in schizophrenia by quantitative PCR and other technologies. In this work we attempted to investigate the role of PLP1 in the etiology of schizophrenia using a family based association study in 487 Chinese Han family trios. The TDT for allelic association demonstrated that, in male, a weak association was detected in SNP rs475827 with p=0.0294, suggesting that the genetic polymorphisms within PLP1 in male are likely to confer an increased susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Chinese population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
4Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2006 May 103: 7482-7
PMID16641098
TitleHuman QKI, a potential regulator of mRNA expression of human oligodendrocyte-related genes involved in schizophrenia.
AbstractThe quaking viable mouse mutation (qk(v)) is a deletion including the 5' regulatory region of the quaking gene (Qki), which causes body tremor and severe dysmyelination in mouse. The function of the human quaking gene, called quaking homolog KH domain RNA-binding (mouse) (QKI), is not well known. We have previously shown that QKI is a new candidate gene for schizophrenia. Here we show that human QKI mRNA levels can account for a high proportion (47%) of normal interindividual mRNA expression variation (and covariation) of six oligodendrocyte-related genes (PLP1, MAG, MBP, TF, SOX10, and CDKN1B) in 55 human brain autopsy samples from individuals without psychiatric diagnoses. In addition, the tightly coexpressed myelin-related genes (PLP1, MAG, and TF) have decreased mRNA levels in 55 schizophrenic patients, as compared with 55 control individuals, and most of this difference (68-96%) can be explained by variation in the relative mRNA levels of QKI-7kb, the same QKI splice variant previously shown to be down-regulated in patients with schizophrenia. Taken together, our results suggest that QKI levels may regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation in human brain, in a similar way as in mouse. Moreover, we hypothesize that previously observed decreased activity of myelin-related genes in schizophrenia might be caused by disturbed QKI splicing.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
5Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2006 May 103: 7482-7
PMID16641098
TitleHuman QKI, a potential regulator of mRNA expression of human oligodendrocyte-related genes involved in schizophrenia.
AbstractThe quaking viable mouse mutation (qk(v)) is a deletion including the 5' regulatory region of the quaking gene (Qki), which causes body tremor and severe dysmyelination in mouse. The function of the human quaking gene, called quaking homolog KH domain RNA-binding (mouse) (QKI), is not well known. We have previously shown that QKI is a new candidate gene for schizophrenia. Here we show that human QKI mRNA levels can account for a high proportion (47%) of normal interindividual mRNA expression variation (and covariation) of six oligodendrocyte-related genes (PLP1, MAG, MBP, TF, SOX10, and CDKN1B) in 55 human brain autopsy samples from individuals without psychiatric diagnoses. In addition, the tightly coexpressed myelin-related genes (PLP1, MAG, and TF) have decreased mRNA levels in 55 schizophrenic patients, as compared with 55 control individuals, and most of this difference (68-96%) can be explained by variation in the relative mRNA levels of QKI-7kb, the same QKI splice variant previously shown to be down-regulated in patients with schizophrenia. Taken together, our results suggest that QKI levels may regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation in human brain, in a similar way as in mouse. Moreover, we hypothesize that previously observed decreased activity of myelin-related genes in schizophrenia might be caused by disturbed QKI splicing.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
6Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007 Aug 10: 547-55
PMID17291372
TitleOligodendroglial abnormalities in schizophrenia, mood disorders and substance abuse. Comorbidity, shared traits, or molecular phenocopies?
AbstractThe evidence implicating oligodendroglia in major mental disorders has grown significantly in the past few years. Microarray analysis revealed altered expression of oligodendroglia-related genes in multiple brain regions from several, clinically diverse groups of subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) as well as subjects with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorders (MDD), alcoholics and cocaine users. In line with gene expression findings, evidence for ultrastructural changes in white matter and altered oligodendroglia in these disorders were reported in neuroimaging and neuropathological studies. Changes in oligodendroglia-related genes reported in SZ, BD and MDD appear to display considerable similarities (particularly decreased expression of MAG, ERBB, TF, PLP1, MOG, MOBP, MOG), while changes in cocaine abuse and alcoholism are more diverse. Common oligodendroglial abnormalities might indicate aetiological or pathophysiological overlaps between different disorders. The possible mechanisms of oligodendroglial abnormalities may involve functional variations in oligodendroglia-related genes, epigenetic regulation of chromatin, DA system hyperactivity and other mechanisms.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
7Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2007 Mar 144B: 129-58
PMID17266109
TitleTowards understanding the schizophrenia code: an expanded convergent functional genomics approach.
AbstractIdentifying genes for schizophrenia through classical genetic approaches has proven arduous. Here, we present a comprehensive convergent analysis that translationally integrates brain gene expression data from a relevant pharmacogenomic mouse model (involving treatments with a psychomimetic agent - phencyclidine (PCP), and an anti-psychotic - clozapine), with human genetic linkage data and human postmortem brain data, as a Bayesian strategy of cross validating findings. Topping the list of candidate genes, we have three genes involved in GABA neurotransmission (GABRA1, GABBR1, and GAD2), one gene involved in glutamate neurotransmission (GRIA2), one gene involved in neuropeptide signaling (TAC1), two genes involved in synaptic function (SYN2 and KCNJ4), six genes involved in myelin/glial function (CNP, MAL, MBP, PLP1, MOBP and GFAP), and one gene involved in lipid metabolism (LPL). These data suggest that schizophrenia is primarily a disorder of brain functional and structural connectivity, with GABA neurotransmission playing a prominent role. These findings may explain the EEG gamma band abnormalities detected in schizophrenia. The analysis also revealed other high probability candidates genes (neurotransmitter signaling, other structural proteins, ion channels, signal transduction, regulatory enzymes, neuronal migration/neurite outgrowth, clock genes, transcription factors, RNA regulatory genes), pathways and mechanisms of likely importance in pathophysiology. Some of the pathways identified suggest possible avenues for augmentation pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia with other existing agents, such as benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants and lipid modulating agents. Other pathways are new potential targets for drug development. Lastly, a comparison with our earlier work on bipolar disorder illuminates the significant molecular overlap between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
8J. Hum. Genet. 2008 -1 53: 863-6
PMID18604471
TitleNo association between the oligodendrocyte-related gene PLP1 and schizophrenia in the Japanese population.
AbstractPLP1 is one of the major myelin-related genes. A large body of expression-based studies showed significantly lower levels of the PLP1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) transcripts in schizophrenia. Moreover, one family-based study identified a weak association signal in a male subset using 487 Chinese family trios. We carried out a population-based association study between PLP1 and schizophrenia in 1,640 subjects. Our data does not support genetic variation in close vicinity or within PLP1 locus as a susceptibility factor.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
9J. Neurosci. 2009 Jul 29: 8363-71
PMID19571127
TitleMice with altered myelin proteolipid protein gene expression display cognitive deficits accompanied by abnormal neuron-glia interactions and decreased conduction velocities.
AbstractConduction velocity (CV) of myelinated axons has been shown to be regulated by oligodendrocytes even after myelination has been completed. However, how myelinating oligodendrocytes regulate CV, and what the significance of this regulation is for normal brain function remain unknown. To address these questions, we analyzed a transgenic mouse line harboring extra copies of the myelin proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) gene (PLP1(tg/-) mice) at 2 months of age. At this stage, the PLP1(tg/-) mice have an unaffected myelin structure with a normally appearing ion channel distribution, but the CV in all axonal tracts tested in the CNS is greatly reduced. We also found decreased axonal diameters and slightly abnormal paranodal structures, both of which can be a cause for the reduced CV. Interestingly the PLP1(tg/-) mice showed altered anxiety-like behaviors, reduced prepulse inhibitions, spatial learning deficits and working memory deficit, all of which are schizophrenia-related behaviors. Our results implicate that abnormalities in the neuron-glia interactions at the paranodal junctions can result in reduced CV in the CNS, which then induces behavioral abnormalities related to schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
10Schizophr. Res. 2009 Jul 112: 46-53
PMID19487109
TitleAbnormal expression of myelination genes and alterations in white matter fractional anisotropy following prenatal viral influenza infection at E16 in mice.
AbstractPrenatal viral infection has been associated with the development of schizophrenia and autism. Our laboratory has previously shown that viral infection causes deleterious effects on brain structure and function in mouse offspring following late first trimester (E9) and late second trimester (E18) administration of influenza virus. We hypothesized that middle second trimester infection (E16) in mice may lead to a different pattern of brain gene expression and structural defects in the developing offspring. C57BL6 mice were infected on E16 with a sublethal dose of human influenza virus or sham-infected using vehicle solution. Male offspring of the infected mice were collected at P0, P14, P35, and P56, their brains removed and cerebella dissected and flash frozen. Microarray, DTI and MRI scanning, as well as qRT-PCR and SDS-PAGE and western blotting analyses were performed to detect differences in gene expression and brain atrophy. Expression of several genes associated with myelination, including Mbp, Mag, and PLP1 were found to be altered, as were protein levels of Mbp, Mag, and DM20. Brain imaging revealed significant atrophy in cerebellum at P14, reduced fractional anisotropy in white matter of the right internal capsule at P0, and increased fractional anisotropy in white matter in corpus callosum at P14 and right middle cerebellar peduncle at P56. We propose that maternal infection in mouse impacts myelination genes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
11Biol. Psychiatry 2010 Feb 67: 279-82
PMID19875103
TitleGenomewide association study of movement-related adverse antipsychotic effects.
AbstractUnderstanding individual differences in the development of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) as a response to antipsychotic therapy is essential to individualize treatment.
We performed genomewide association studies to search for genetic susceptibility to EPS. Our sample consisted of 738 schizophrenia patients, genotyped for 492K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We studied three quantitative measures of antipsychotic adverse drug reactions-the Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS) for Parkinsonism, the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS)-as well as a clinical diagnosis of probable tardive dyskinesia.
Two SNPs for SAS, rs17022444 and rs2126709 with p = 1.2 x 10(-10) and p = 3.8 x 10(-7), respectively, and one for AIMS, rs7669317 with p = 7.7 x 10(-8), reached genomewide significance (Q value < .1). rs17022444 and rs7669317 were located in intergenic regions and rs2126709 was located in ZNF202 on 11q24. Fourteen additional signals were potentially interesting (Q value < .5). The ZNF202 is a transcriptional repressor controlling, among other genes, PLP1, which is the major protein in myelin. Mutations in PLP1 cause Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, which has Parkinsonism as an occurring symptom. Altered mRNA expression of PLP1 is associated with schizophrenia.
Although our findings require replication and validation, this study demonstrates the potential of genomewide association studies to discover genes and pathways that mediate adverse effects of antipsychotics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic