1Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003 Jul 100: 8993-8
PMID12851458
TitleEvidence for association of schizophrenia with genetic variation in the 8p21.3 gene, PPP3CC, encoding the calcineurin gamma subunit.
Abstractschizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by a complex mode of inheritance. Forebrain-specific CNB knockout mice display a spectrum of behavioral abnormalities related to altered behaviors observed in schizophrenia patients. To examine whether calcineurin dysfunction is involved in schizophrenia etiology, we undertook studies of an initial subset of calcineurin-related genes, prioritizing ones that map to loci previously implicated in schizophrenia by linkage studies. Transmission disequilibrium studies in a large sample of affected families detected association of the PPP3CC gene, which encodes the calcineurin gamma catalytic subunit, with disease. Our results identify PPP3CC, located at 8p21.3, as a potential schizophrenia susceptibility gene and support the proposal that alterations in calcineurin signaling contribute to schizophrenia pathogenesis.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
2Biol. Psychiatry 2005 Apr 57: 702-10
PMID15820226
TitleDecreased hippocampal expression of the susceptibility gene PPP3CC and other calcineurin subunits in schizophrenia.
AbstractCalcineurin (CaN) is a phosphatase involved in synaptic plasticity. A haplotype of the PPP3CC gene, which encodes the gamma isoform of the catalytic subunit (CaN A), has been associated with schizophrenia. However, the distribution of CaN A gamma is not established, nor whether its expression changes in schizophrenia.
CaN A expression was analyzed in the hippocampal formation of 13 patients with schizophrenia and 12 controls. All three isoforms were examined, using in situ hybridization histochemistry, RT-PCR, and laser-assisted microdissection. CaN A protein was assessed using ELISA and immunohistochemistry. CaN A mRNAs were also measured in rats treated with haloperidol or chlorpromazine.
CaN was prominent in excitatory neurons. CaN A alpha and A beta isoforms were abundant in all subfields, but CaN A gamma was not reliably detected in CA1. CaN A protein, and all three mRNAs, were decreased in schizophrenia. The mRNA reductions were present in all subfields measured, except CA1. CaN A mRNAs were unaltered in the antipsychotic-treated rats.
Decreased CaN expression extends the evidence for aberrant hippocampal synaptic plasticity in schizophrenia, which particularly affects glutamatergic transmission, and which leaves CA1 relatively unaffected. Reduced expression of PPP3CC may underlie its genetic involvement in the disorder.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
3J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2005 Sep 112: 1255-62
PMID15843870
TitleNo association with the calcineurin A gamma subunit gene (PPP3CC) haplotype to Japanese schizophrenia.
AbstractCalcineurin, one of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase, comprises more than 1% of the total protein content in brain. This evidence points towards important roles of calcineurin in neural function. Miyakawa et al. reported that forebrain-specific calcineurin knockout mice showed the behavioral abnormalities that are often observed in schizophrenia patients. Based on this evidence, they suggested that calcineurin dysfunction could be involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Thereafter this report, Gerber et al. performed transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) studies and showed an evidence for a nominally significant over-transmission of a common haplotype of the human calcineurin A gamma subunit gene (PPP3CC). We performed association analysis of PPP3CC in Japanese sample of 457 schizophrenia cases and 429 controls. To our regret, we could not confirm the association with Japanese schizophrenia to PPP3CC including core at-risk haplotype. Our result suggests that PPP3CC may not play a major role in Japanese schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
4Eur. J. Neurosci. 2005 Dec 22: 3017-24
PMID16367768
TitleDifferential expression of calcineurin A subunit mRNA isoforms during rat hippocampal and cerebellar development.
AbstractCalcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B) is a calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase. It has diverse roles and is centrally involved in synaptic plasticity. The catalytic A subunit of calcineurin has three isoforms, alpha, beta and gamma. Their expression and ontogeny in the brain has not been systematically investigated; such data become important with a report that PPP3CC, the gene encoding calcineurin Agamma, is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, and the finding that its expression is decreased in the disorder. We used in situ hybridization histochemistry to measure the relative transcript abundance of calcineurin Agamma and the other catalytic isoforms, Aalpha and Abeta, during development of the Sprague-Dawley rat hippocampus and cerebellum. All three isoforms are present in both regions at all time points [embryonic day 19 (E19) to postnatal day 42 (P42)] and undergo developmental regulation, but differ in their ontogenic profile. Calcineurin Aalpha and Abeta mRNAs increased from E19 through to adulthood, whereas Agamma mRNA was most highly expressed during early developmental stages. Calcineurin Aalpha and Abeta mRNAs positively correlated with synaptophysin mRNA (a synaptic marker), whilst Agamma mRNA was either unrelated to, or negatively correlated, with this transcript. These data confirm that all three calcineurin A subunits are expressed in the rodent brain, and indicate that calcineurin Agamma may have different roles than Aalpha and Abeta. The data also suggest a potential importance of calcineurin Agamma in neurodevelopment, and in the genetically influenced neurodevelopmental disturbance that is thought to underlie schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
5Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2006 Jun 14: 669-80
PMID16721403
TitleMolecular genetic studies of schizophrenia.
AbstractThe study of schizophrenia genetics has confirmed the importance of genes in etiology, but has not so far identified the relationship between observed genetic risks and specific DNA variants, protein alterations or biological processes. In spite of many limitations, numerous regions of the human genome give consistent, although by no means unanimous, support for linkage, which is unlikely to occur by chance. Two recent shifts have been evident in the field. First, a series of studies combining linkage and association analyses in the same family sets have identified promising candidate genes (DTNBP1, NRG1, G72/G30, TRAR4). Although a consensus definition of replication for genetic association in a complex trait remains difficult to achieve, the evidence for two of these (dystrobrevin binding protein 1 (DTNBP1), NRG1) is strong. Second, a series of studies combining association with functional investigation of changes in the associated gene in schizophrenia have also identified several candidate genes (COMT, RGS4, PPP3CC, ZDHHC8, AKT1). Somewhat surprisingly, the loci implicated by these studies have proven less robust in replication, although the number of replication studies remains small in several cases. Assessment of the combined evidence for the DTNBP1 gene gives some insight into the nature of the problems remaining to be solved.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
6Psychiatr Hung 2006 -1 21: 404-12
PMID17438657
Title[Gene polymorphism and gene expression in schizophrenia].
AbstractThe author reviews relevant data on the neuropathology and molecular genetics of schizophrenia. Anatomical alterations are localized mainly in the hippocampus, dorsal thalamus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and involve the morphology and molecular structure of the neurons and synapses. Several susceptibility genes [including COMT, dysbindin, neuregulin, DISCI, RGS4, GRM3, G72, PPP3CC, CHRNA7, PRODH2, Aktl, 5qGABA(A)] having physiological function in the brain have been identified and this supports the view of schizophrenia as a disorder of cerebral synaptic function. NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate transmission may be particularly involved, but disturbances of dopamine and GABA signalling seem to be linked as well. Based on recent data, an agreement is emerging between the roles of the genes on the molecular and synaptic levels and the understanding of the disorder at the neural systems level.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
7Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2006 Nov 1086: 144-59
PMID17185513
TitleInvestigating gene-to-behavior pathways in psychiatric disorders: the use of a comprehensive behavioral test battery on genetically engineered mice.
AbstractWe have been investigating the relationships between genes and behaviors by conducting a systematic and well-defined behavioral test battery with mice that have a mutation on a gene of interest. The behavioral test battery covers a relatively broad range of various behavioral domains such as learning and memory, sensory-motor functions, emotion, motivation, and drug sensitivity/preference. Recently, we subjected mice lacking calcineurin (CN), a calcium/calmodulin protein phosphatase, to the comprehensive behavioral test battery. The mutant mice had a severe working memory deficit, increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse and latent inhibition. The abnormalities of CN mutant mice were strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenic patients. Consistent with these findings, human genetics studies in a large sample of affected families detected a significant association of the PPP3CC gene, which encodes the CN gamma catalytic subunit with schizophrenia. The idea that abnormalities in the CN signaling pathway are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis is consistent with traditional theories of schizophrenia and with many facts known about schizophrenia. A tremendous amount of knowledge about CN has accumulated and, by utilizing this information, the studies on the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its related mental disorders will be potentially accelerated. We discuss the potential impact of a large-scale mouse phenotyping project on the study of psychiatric disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
8Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2006 Nov 1086: 144-59
PMID17185513
TitleInvestigating gene-to-behavior pathways in psychiatric disorders: the use of a comprehensive behavioral test battery on genetically engineered mice.
AbstractWe have been investigating the relationships between genes and behaviors by conducting a systematic and well-defined behavioral test battery with mice that have a mutation on a gene of interest. The behavioral test battery covers a relatively broad range of various behavioral domains such as learning and memory, sensory-motor functions, emotion, motivation, and drug sensitivity/preference. Recently, we subjected mice lacking calcineurin (CN), a calcium/calmodulin protein phosphatase, to the comprehensive behavioral test battery. The mutant mice had a severe working memory deficit, increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse and latent inhibition. The abnormalities of CN mutant mice were strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenic patients. Consistent with these findings, human genetics studies in a large sample of affected families detected a significant association of the PPP3CC gene, which encodes the CN gamma catalytic subunit with schizophrenia. The idea that abnormalities in the CN signaling pathway are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis is consistent with traditional theories of schizophrenia and with many facts known about schizophrenia. A tremendous amount of knowledge about CN has accumulated and, by utilizing this information, the studies on the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its related mental disorders will be potentially accelerated. We discuss the potential impact of a large-scale mouse phenotyping project on the study of psychiatric disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
9Mol. Psychiatry 2007 Oct 12: 891-3
PMID17895921
TitleSupport for association of the PPP3CC gene with schizophrenia.
Abstract-1
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
10Schizophr. Res. 2007 Feb 90: 357-9
PMID17141475
TitleNo association between PPP3CC and schizophrenia in the Chinese population.
Abstract-1
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
11Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2007 Feb 104: 2815-20
PMID17360599
TitleGenetic analysis of the calcineurin pathway identifies members of the EGR gene family, specifically EGR3, as potential susceptibility candidates in schizophrenia.
AbstractThe calcineurin cascade is central to neuronal signal transduction, and genes in this network are intriguing candidate schizophrenia susceptibility genes. To replicate and extend our previously reported association between the PPP3CC gene, encoding the calcineurin catalytic gamma-subunit, and schizophrenia, we examined 84 SNPs from 14 calcineurin-related candidate genes for genetic association by using 124 Japanese schizophrenic pedigrees. Four of these genes (PPP3CC, EGR2, EGR3, and EGR4) showed nominally significant association with schizophrenia. In a postmortem brain study, EGR1, EGR2, and EGR3 transcripts were shown to be down-regulated in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic, but not bipolar, patients. These findings raise a potentially important role for EGR genes in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Because EGR3 is an attractive candidate gene based on its chromosomal location close to PPP3CC within 8p21.3 and its functional link to dopamine, glutamate, and neuregulin signaling, we extended our analysis by resequencing the entire EGR3 genomic interval and detected 15 SNPs. One of these, IVS1 + 607A-->G SNP, displayed the strongest evidence for disease association, which was confirmed in 1,140 independent case-control samples. An in vitro promoter assay detected a possible expression-regulatory effect of this SNP. These findings support the previous genetic association of altered calcineurin signaling with schizophrenia pathogenesis and identify EGR3 as a compelling susceptibility gene.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
12Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2007 Feb 104: 2815-20
PMID17360599
TitleGenetic analysis of the calcineurin pathway identifies members of the EGR gene family, specifically EGR3, as potential susceptibility candidates in schizophrenia.
AbstractThe calcineurin cascade is central to neuronal signal transduction, and genes in this network are intriguing candidate schizophrenia susceptibility genes. To replicate and extend our previously reported association between the PPP3CC gene, encoding the calcineurin catalytic gamma-subunit, and schizophrenia, we examined 84 SNPs from 14 calcineurin-related candidate genes for genetic association by using 124 Japanese schizophrenic pedigrees. Four of these genes (PPP3CC, EGR2, EGR3, and EGR4) showed nominally significant association with schizophrenia. In a postmortem brain study, EGR1, EGR2, and EGR3 transcripts were shown to be down-regulated in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic, but not bipolar, patients. These findings raise a potentially important role for EGR genes in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Because EGR3 is an attractive candidate gene based on its chromosomal location close to PPP3CC within 8p21.3 and its functional link to dopamine, glutamate, and neuregulin signaling, we extended our analysis by resequencing the entire EGR3 genomic interval and detected 15 SNPs. One of these, IVS1 + 607A-->G SNP, displayed the strongest evidence for disease association, which was confirmed in 1,140 independent case-control samples. An in vitro promoter assay detected a possible expression-regulatory effect of this SNP. These findings support the previous genetic association of altered calcineurin signaling with schizophrenia pathogenesis and identify EGR3 as a compelling susceptibility gene.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
13Mol. Psychiatry 2007 Oct 12: 966-74
PMID17339875
TitleMore evidence supports the association of PPP3CC with schizophrenia.
AbstractCalcineurin is a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase composed of two subunits, a regulatory subunit of calcineurin B (CNB) and a catalytic subunit of calcineurin A (CNA). PPP3CC is the gamma isoform of CNA located at the chromosome 8p21.3 region. To evaluate the association between PPP3CC and schizophrenia in the Taiwanese population, 10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers across the gene were genotyped by the method of MALDI-TOF in 218 schizophrenia families with at least two affected siblings. One SNP (rs2272080) located around the exon 1 untranslated region was nominally associated with schizophrenia (P=0.024) and significantly associated with the expression of PPP3CC in lymphoblast cell line; the TT and TG genotype had significantly higher relative expression levels than the GG genotype (P=0.0012 and 0.015, respectively). In further endophenotype stratification, the single locus of rs2272080 and the haplotypes of both two-SNP haplotype (rs7833266-rs2272080) and seven-SNP haplotype (rs2461491-rs2469758-rs2461489-rs2469770-rs2449340-rs1482337-rs2252471) showed significant associations with the subgroup of schizophrenia with deficits of the sustained attention as tested by the continuous performance test (CPT, P<0.05) and the executive functioning as tested by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, P<0.05). The results suggest that PPP3CC gene may be a true susceptibility gene for schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
14Am J Psychiatry 2008 Apr 165: 497-506
PMID18198266
TitleNo significant association of 14 candidate genes with schizophrenia in a large European ancestry sample: implications for psychiatric genetics.
AbstractThe authors carried out a genetic association study of 14 schizophrenia candidate genes (RGS4, DISC1, DTNBP1, STX7, TAAR6, PPP3CC, NRG1, DRD2, HTR2A, DAOA, AKT1, CHRNA7, COMT, and ARVCF). This study tested the hypothesis of association of schizophrenia with common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes using the largest sample to date that has been collected with uniform clinical methods and the most comprehensive set of SNPs in each gene.
The sample included 1,870 cases (schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder) and 2,002 screened comparison subjects (i.e. controls), all of European ancestry, with ancestral outliers excluded based on analysis of ancestry-informative markers. The authors genotyped 789 SNPs, including tags for most common SNPs in each gene, SNPs previously reported as associated, and SNPs located in functional domains of genes such as promoters, coding exons (including nonsynonymous SNPs), 3' untranslated regions, and conserved noncoding sequences. After extensive data cleaning, 648 SNPs were analyzed for association of single SNPs and of haplotypes.
Neither experiment-wide nor gene-wide statistical significance was observed in the primary single-SNP analyses or in secondary analyses of haplotypes or of imputed genotypes for additional common HapMap SNPs. Results in SNPs previously reported as associated with schizophrenia were consistent with chance expectation, and four functional polymorphisms in COMT, DRD2, and HTR2A did not produce nominally significant evidence to support previous evidence for association.
It is unlikely that common SNPs in these genes account for a substantial proportion of the genetic risk for schizophrenia, although small effects cannot be ruled out.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
15Schizophr. Res. 2008 Sep 104: 96-107
PMID18715757
TitleGenetic associations with schizophrenia: meta-analyses of 12 candidate genes.
AbstractGenetic association studies on schizophrenia (SZ) have been repeatedly performed over the last two decades, resulting in a consensus that results are generally inconsistent. This consensus has begun to change as a result of meta-analyses (e.g., [Glatt, S.J. and Jonsson, E.G., 2006. The Cys allele of the DRD2 Ser311Cys polymorphism has a dominant effect on risk for schizophrenia: evidence from fixed- and random-effects meta-analyses. Am. J. Med. Genet. B. Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 141, 149-154.]). The schizophreniaGene database (http://www.schizophreniaforum.org/res/sczgene/default.asp) has been a leader in meta-analyses of SZ association data, by dynamically and comprehensively cataloging all public genetic association studies, and preparing meta-analyses of case-control data. There are 19 "top" candidate genes from these analyses (access on December 20, 2007), showing the highest effect sizes and nominally significant associations of at least one variant in the meta-analyses of all ethnic samples or of samples of Caucasian ancestry. We selected 40 polymorphisms in 12 selected "top" genes for additional meta-analyses, which had at least one familial association data. We found gene-wide (correction for the number of meta-analyses for each gene) significant allelic association evidence for seven genes in the combined samples. The odds ratios (ORs) of the associated minor risk alleles range from 1.072 to 1.121, for DRD4, MTHFR, PPP3CC and TP53. For protective allele associations, the ORs are between 0.842 and 0.886, for DAO, IL1B, and SLC6A4. In population-based sub-analyses, we found significant results in four genes in Asians (ORs between 1.084 and 1.309 for DRD4, GABRB2, PPP3CC, and TP53), and one gene in European (OR of 0.888 for SLC6A4). The association of rs1816072 of GABRB2 with SZ in Asians was significant (adjusted P=0.048 after correction for 80 tests). No significant heterogeneity between case-control and family-based study designs was detected in 35 out of 40 polymorphisms. Our results further support eight potential SZ candidate genes and suggest that family data can reasonably be included in the meta-analysis of genetic associations.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
16Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2008 Jun 28: 135-42
PMID18646600
Title[Investigating genes-to-behavior pathways in psychiatric diseases: an approach using a comprehensive behavioral test battery on genetically engineered mice].
AbstractWe have been investigating the relationships between genes and behaviors by conducting a systematic and well-defined behavioral test battery with mice that have a mutation on a gene of interest. The behavioral test battery covers a relatively broad range of various behavioral domains such as learning and memory, sensory-motor functions, emotion, motivation, and drug sensitivity/preference. Recently, we subjected mice lacking calcineurin (CN), a calcium/calmodulin protein phosphatase, to the comprehensive behavioral test battery. The mutant mice had a severe working memory deficit, increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse and latent inhibition. The abnormalities of CN mutant mice were strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenic patients. Consistent with these findings, human genetics studies in a large sample of affected families detected a significant association of the PPP3CC gene, which encodes the CN gamma catalytic subunit with schizophrenia. The idea that abnormalities in the CN signaling pathway are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis is consistent with traditional theories of schizophrenia and with many facts known about schizophrenia. A tremendous amount of knowledge about CN has accumulated and, by utilizing this information, the studies on the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its related mental disorders will be potentially accelerated. We discuss the potential impact of a large-scale mouse phenotyping project on the study of psychiatric disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
17Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2008 Jun 28: 135-42
PMID18646600
Title[Investigating genes-to-behavior pathways in psychiatric diseases: an approach using a comprehensive behavioral test battery on genetically engineered mice].
AbstractWe have been investigating the relationships between genes and behaviors by conducting a systematic and well-defined behavioral test battery with mice that have a mutation on a gene of interest. The behavioral test battery covers a relatively broad range of various behavioral domains such as learning and memory, sensory-motor functions, emotion, motivation, and drug sensitivity/preference. Recently, we subjected mice lacking calcineurin (CN), a calcium/calmodulin protein phosphatase, to the comprehensive behavioral test battery. The mutant mice had a severe working memory deficit, increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse and latent inhibition. The abnormalities of CN mutant mice were strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenic patients. Consistent with these findings, human genetics studies in a large sample of affected families detected a significant association of the PPP3CC gene, which encodes the CN gamma catalytic subunit with schizophrenia. The idea that abnormalities in the CN signaling pathway are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis is consistent with traditional theories of schizophrenia and with many facts known about schizophrenia. A tremendous amount of knowledge about CN has accumulated and, by utilizing this information, the studies on the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its related mental disorders will be potentially accelerated. We discuss the potential impact of a large-scale mouse phenotyping project on the study of psychiatric disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
18Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2008 Oct 1139: 57-62
PMID18991849
TitleAssociation study of the calcineurin A gamma subunit gene (PPP3CC) and methamphetamine-use disorder in a Japanese population.
AbstractSeveral lines of evidence from animal and genetic analyses showed that the calcineurin A gamma subunit gene (PPP3CC) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Moreover, a recent large Japanese case-control study confirmed the genetic association of PPP3CC with schizophrenia. The symptoms of methamphetamine (MAP)-induced psychosis are similar to those of schizophrenia, suggesting that PPP3CC is an attractive candidate gene not only for schizophrenia, but also for METH-related disorders. In this study, we carried out a genetic association study of PPP3CC with MAP-use disorder in a Japanese population. We selected five haplotype-tagging SNPs from the aforementioned replication study and genotyped 393 samples (MAP abuse, 128; control, 265). We could not detect a significant association of all tagging SNPs with each condition. In conclusion, our data suggest that PPP3CC does not elevate the risk of MAP-use disorder in the Japanese population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
19Behav Brain Funct 2008 -1 4: 2
PMID18201382
TitleAssociation between the PPP3CC gene, coding for the calcineurin gamma catalytic subunit, and bipolar disorder.
AbstractCalcineurin is a neuron-enriched phosphatase that regulates synaptic plasticity and neuronal adaptation. Activation of calcineurin, overall, antagonizes the effects of the cyclic AMP activated protein/kinase A. Thus, kinase/phosphatase dynamic balance seems to be critical for transition to long-term cellular responses in neurons, and disruption of this equilibrium should induce behavioral impairments in animal models. Genetic animal models, as well as post-mortem studies in humans have implicated calcineurin dependent calcium and cyclic AMP regulated phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in both affective responses and psychosis. Recently, genetic association between schizophrenia and genetic variation of the human calcineurin A gamma subunit gene (PPP3CC) has been reported.
Based on the assumption of the common underlying genetic factor in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), we performed association analysis of CC33 and CCS3 polymorphisms of the PPP3CC gene reported to be associated with schizophrenia in a French sample of 115 BPAD patients and 97 healthy controls.
Carrying 'CT' or 'TT' genotypes of the PPP3CC-CC33 polymorphism increased risk to develop BPAD comparing to carry 'CC' genotype (OR = 1.8 [1.01-3.0]; p = 0.05). For the PPP3CC-CCS3 polymorphism, 'AG' or 'GG' carriers have an increased risk to develop BPAD than 'AA' carriers (OR = 2.8 [1.5-5.2]). The CC33 and CCS3 polymorphisms were observed in significant linkage disequilibrium (D' = 0.91, r2 = 0.72). Haplotype frequencies were significantly different in BPAD patients than in controls (p = 0.03), with a significant over-transmission of the 'TG' haplotype in BPAD patients (p = 0.001).
We suggest that the PPP3CC gene might be a susceptibility gene for BPAD, in accordance with current neurobiological hypotheses that implicate dysregulation of signal-transduction pathways, such as those regulated by calcineurin, in the etiology of affective disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
20Mol. Psychiatry 2009 Jun 14: 563-89
PMID19204725
TitleChromosome 8p as a potential hub for developmental neuropsychiatric disorders: implications for schizophrenia, autism and cancer.
AbstractDefects in genetic and developmental processes are thought to contribute susceptibility to autism and schizophrenia. Presumably, owing to etiological complexity identifying susceptibility genes and abnormalities in the development has been difficult. However, the importance of genes within chromosomal 8p region for neuropsychiatric disorders and cancer is well established. There are 484 annotated genes located on 8p; many are most likely oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes. Molecular genetics and developmental studies have identified 21 genes in this region (ADRA1A, ARHGEF10, CHRNA2, CHRNA6, CHRNB3, DKK4, DPYSL2, EGR3, FGF17, FGF20, FGFR1, FZD3, LDL, NAT2, NEF3, NRG1, PCM1, PLAT, PPP3CC, SFRP1 and VMAT1/SLC18A1) that are most likely to contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder and depression), neurodegenerative disorders (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease) and cancer. Furthermore, at least seven nonprotein-coding RNAs (microRNAs) are located at 8p. Structural variants on 8p, such as copy number variants, microdeletions or microduplications, might also contribute to autism, schizophrenia and other human diseases including cancer. In this review, we consider the current state of evidence from cytogenetic, linkage, association, gene expression and endophenotyping studies for the role of these 8p genes in neuropsychiatric disease. We also describe how a mutation in an 8p gene (Fgf17) results in a mouse with deficits in specific components of social behavior and a reduction in its dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. We finish by discussing the biological connections of 8p with respect to neuropsychiatric disorders and cancer, despite the shortcomings of this evidence.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
21Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2010 -1 4: 629-56
PMID21312416
TitleMolecules, signaling, and schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, but despite some progress in identifying the genetic factors implicated in its development, the molecular mechanisms underlying its etiology and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. However, accumulating evidence suggests that regardless of the underlying genetic complexity, the mechanisms of the disease may impact a small number of common signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the evidence for a role of schizophrenia susceptibility genes in intracellular signaling cascades by focusing on three prominent candidate genes: AKT, PPP3CC (calcineurin), and DISC1. We describe the regulation of a number of signaling cascades by AKT and calcineurin through protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, and the recently uncovered functions of DISC1 in cAMP and GSK3beta signaling. In addition, we present independent evidence for the involvement of their downstream signaling pathways in schizophrenia. Finally, we discuss evidence supporting an impact of these susceptibility genes on common intracellular signaling pathways and the convergence of their effects on neuronal processes implicated in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
22Psychiatry Res 2011 Jan 185: 16-9
PMID20537399
TitleAssociation of calcineurin A gamma subunit (PPP3CC) and early growth response 3 (EGR3) gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to schizophrenia in a Japanese population.
AbstractTo examine the association of PPP3CC (rs10108011 and rs2461491) and EGR3 (rs3750192) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with Japanese schizophrenia, we performed a case-control association study using 337 patients and 369 healthy controls. As a result, by our moderated cohort-size study, PPP3CC and EGR3 are not genetic risk factors for schizophrenia, whereas meta-analysis showed weak association of rs10108011 with schizophrenia in the Japanese population (odds ratio (OR)=1.12, P=0.01).
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
23BMC Med. Genet. 2013 -1 14: 33
PMID23497497
TitleSchizophrenia susceptibility and NMDA-receptor mediated signalling: an association study involving 32 tagSNPs of DAO, DAOA, PPP3CC, and DTNBP1 genes.
AbstractRecent studies supported associations between four NMDA-receptor-mediated signalling genes (D-amino acid oxidase, DAO; D-amino acid oxidase activator, DAOA; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit gamma isoform, PPP3CC; dystrobrevin-binding protein 1, DTNBP1) and schizophrenia susceptibility, even though with contrasting results.
In an attempt to replicate these findings for the first time in an Italian population, a panel of 32 tagSNPs was analysed in a representative case-control sample involving 879 subjects.
An association in the allele frequency was observed for the estimated PPP3CC CAG triplotype in the SNP window rs4872499 T/C-rs11780915 A/G-rs13271367 G/A (pcorrect = 0.001). Similarly, the clustered genotype frequencies of the estimated/phased CAG triplotype differed between cases and controls (p = 0.004), with the carriers having a higher frequency in the control population (p = 0.002, odd ratio OR = 0.59, 95% confident interval CI: 0.43-0.82).Following the phenotypic dissection strategy, the analysis of single SNPs evidenced a protective effect in males of rs11780915 and rs13271367 in PPP3CC gene (pcorrect = 0.02, pcorrect = 0.04 respectively). Moreover the estimated/phased GT diplotype (rs2070586A/G-rs3741775G/T) carriers of the DAO gene were more highly represented in female controls (p = 0.017, OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.37-0.90), as were the estimated/phased CAG triplotype carriers of the PPP3CC gene in females (p = 0.01, OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.32-0.87). In addition, we performed an interaction analysis, and a 66% (p = 0.003, OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.17-0.70) lower risk of developing schizophrenia for female (CAG + GT) carriers versus non-CAG or -GT carriers was observed. For DTNBP1, we found a protective effect in males for the rs6459409 (pcorrect = 0.02) and the estimated/phased CT diplotype (rs6459409-rs9476886) carriers (p = 3x10-4, OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30-0.70).In relation to diagnostic subtypes, the estimated/phased DAO GT diplotype and PPP3CC CAG triplotype female carriers were found to show relative risk ratio (RRR) values of 0.52 and 0.54 lower risk for a paranoid phenotype respectively.
Although the results are preliminary and needed replication in a larger sample, this study suggests that NMDA receptor-mediated signalling genes (DAO, PPP3CC, DTNBP1) might be involved in schizophrenia pathogenic mechanisms related to gender.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
24Transl Psychiatry 2014 -1 4: e339
PMID24399042
TitleGenome-wide DNA methylation analysis of human brain tissue from schizophrenia patients.
AbstractRecent studies suggest that genetic and environmental factors do not account for all the schizophrenia risk, and epigenetics also has a role in disease susceptibility. DNA methylation is a heritable epigenetic modification that can regulate gene expression. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis was performed on post-mortem human brain tissue from 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 unaffected controls. DNA methylation was assessed at over 485,000 CpG sites using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Bead Chip. After adjusting for age and post-mortem interval, 4641 probes corresponding to 2929 unique genes were found to be differentially methylated. Of those genes, 1291 were located in a CpG island and 817 were in a promoter region. These include NOS1, AKT1, DTNBP1, DNMT1, PPP3CC and SOX10, which have previously been associated with schizophrenia. More than 100 of these genes overlap with a previous DNA methylation study of peripheral blood from schizophrenia patients in which 27,000 CpG sites were analysed. Unsupervised clustering analysis of the top 3000 most variable probes revealed two distinct groups with significantly more people with schizophrenia in cluster one compared with controls (P=1.74 10(-4)). The first cluster composed of 88% of patients with schizophrenia and only 12% controls, whereas the second cluster composed of 27% of patients with schizophrenia and 73% controls. These results strongly suggest that differential DNA methylation is important in schizophrenia etiology and add support for the use of DNA methylation profiles as a future prognostic indicator of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
25J. Biol. Chem. 2016 Jan 291: 1948-56
PMID26627835
TitleCalcineurin A? is a Functional Phosphatase That Modulates Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis.
AbstractVariation in PPP3CC, the gene that encodes the ? isoform of the calcineurin catalytic subunit, has been reported to be associated with schizophrenia. Because of its low expression level in most tissues, there has been little research devoted to the specific function of the calcineurin A? (CNA?) versus the calcineurin A? (CNA?) and calcineurin A? (CNA?) catalytic isoforms. Consequently, we have a limited understanding of the role of altered CNA? function in psychiatric disease. In this study, we demonstrate that CNA? is present in the rodent and human brain and dephosphorylates a presynaptic substrate of calcineurin. Through a combination of immunocytochemistry and immuno-EM, we further show that CNA? is localized to presynaptic terminals in hippocampal neurons. Critically, we demonstrate that RNAi-mediated knockdown of CNA? leads to a disruption of synaptic vesicle cycling in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. These data indicate that CNA? regulates a critical aspect of synaptic vesicle cycling and suggest that variation in PPP3CC may contribute to psychiatric disease by altering presynaptic function.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
26Schizophr. Res. 2016 Apr -1: -1
PMID27106592
TitleAssociation study of MiRSNPs with schizophrenia, tardive dyskinesia and cognition.
AbstractMicroRNAs (miRNAs) bind to 3'UTRs of genes and negatively regulate their expression. With ~50% of miRNAs expressing in the brain, they play an important role in neuronal development, plasticity, cognition and neurological disorders. Conserved miRNA targets are present in >60% genes in humans and are under evolutionary pressure to maintain pairing with miRNA. However, such binding may be affected by genetic variant(s) in the target sites (MiRSNPs), thereby altering gene expression. Differential expression of a large number of genes in postmortem brains of schizophrenia (SZ) patients compared to controls has been documented. Thus studying the role of MiRSNPs which are underinvestigated in SZ becomes attractive. We systematically selected 35 MiRSNPs with predicted functional relevance in 3'UTRs of genes shown previously to be associated with SZ, genotyped and tested their association with disease, using independent discovery and replication samples (total n=1017 cases; n=1073 controls). We also explored genetic associations with two sets of quantitative traits, namely tardive dyskinesia (TD) and cognitive functions disrupted in SZ in subsets of the study cohort. In the primary analysis, a significant association of MiRSNP rs7430 at PPP3CC was observed with SZ in the discovery and the replication samples [discovery: P=0.01; OR (95% CI) 1.24 (1.04-1.48); replication: P=0.03; OR (95% CI) 1.20 (1.02-1.43)]. In the exploratory analyses, five SNPs were nominally associated with TD (P values 0.04-0.004). Separately, 12 SNPs were associated with one or more of the eight cognitive domains (P values 0.05-0.003). These associations, particularly the SNP at PPP3CC merit further investigations.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic