1PLoS ONE 2013 -1 8: e81711
TitleRGMa regulates cortical interneuron migration and differentiation.
AbstractThe etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, has been linked to a failure to establish the intricate neural network comprising excitatory pyramidal and inhibitory interneurons during neocortex development. A large proportion of cortical inhibitory interneurons originate in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) of the ventral telencephalon and then migrate through the ventral subventricular zone, across the corticostriatal junction, into the embryonic cortex. Successful navigation of newborn interneurons through the complex environment of the ventral telencephalon is governed by spatiotemporally restricted deployment of both chemorepulsive and chemoattractive guidance cues which work in concert to create a migratory corridor. Despite the expanding list of interneuron guidance cues, cues responsible for preventing interneurons from re-entering the ventricular zone of the ganglionic eminences have not been well characterized. Here we provide evidence that the chemorepulsive axon guidance cue, RGMA (Repulsive Guidance Molecule a), may fulfill this function. The ventricular zone restricted expression of RGMA in the ganglionic eminences and the presence of its receptor, Neogenin, in the ventricular zone and on newborn and maturing MGE-derived interneurons implicates RGMA-Neogenin interactions in interneuron differentiation and migration. Using an in vitro approach, we show that RGMA promotes interneuron differentiation by potentiating neurite outgrowth. In addition, using in vitro explant and migration assays, we provide evidence that RGMA is a repulsive guidance cue for newborn interneurons migrating out of the ganglionic eminence ventricular zone. Intriguingly, the alternative Neogenin ligand, Netrin-1, had no effect on migration. However, we observed complete abrogation of RGMA-induced chemorepulsion when newborn interneurons were simultaneously exposed to RGMA and Netrin-1 gradients, suggesting a novel mechanism for the tight regulation of RGMA-guided interneuron migration. We propose that during peak neurogenesis, repulsive RGMA-Neogenin interactions drive interneurons into the migratory corridor and prevent re-entry into the ventricular zone of the ganglionic eminences.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia