|Mol. Psychiatry 2012 Dec 17: 1328-39
|Promoter polymorphisms in two overlapping 6p25 genes implicate mitochondrial proteins in cognitive deficit in schizophrenia.
|In a previous study, we detected a 6p25-p24 region linked to schizophrenia in families with high composite cognitive deficit (CD) scores, a quantitative trait integrating multiple cognitive measures. Association mapping of a 10 Mb interval identified a 260 kb region with a cluster of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with CD scores and memory performance. The region contains two colocalising genes, LYRM4 and FARS2, both encoding mitochondrial proteins. The two tagging SNPs with strongest evidence of association were located around the overlapping putative promoters, with rs2224391 predicted to alter a transcription factor binding site (TFBS). Sequencing the promoter region identified 22 SNPs, many predicted to affect TFBSs, in a tight linkage disequilibrium block. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed promoter activity in the predicted promoter region, and demonstrated marked downregulation of expression in the LYRM4 direction under the haplotype comprising the minor alleles of promoter SNPs, which however is not driven by rs2224391. Experimental evidence from LYRM4 expression in lymphoblasts, gel-shift assays and modelling of DNA breathing dynamics pointed to two adjacent promoter SNPs, rs7752203-rs4141761, as the functional variants affecting expression. Their C-G alleles were associated with higher transcriptional activity and preferential binding of nuclear proteins, whereas the G-A combination had opposite effects and was associated with poor memory and high CD scores. LYRM4 is a eukaryote-specific component of the mitochondrial biogenesis of Fe-S clusters, essential cofactors in multiple processes, including oxidative phosphorylation. LYRM4 downregulation may be one of the mechanisms involved in inefficient oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative stress, increasingly recognised as contributors to schizophrenia pathogenesis.
|Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol. 2013 May 17: 225-31
|6p25 interstitial deletion in two dizygotic twins with gyral pattern anomaly and speech and language disorder.
|Submicroscopic 6p25 deletion is now recognized as a clinically identifiable syndrome, characterized by intellectual disability, language impairment, hearing deficit, craniofacial, ophthalmologic, cardiac, and varying central nervous system anomalies. We report on two dyzogotic twins with a maternal segregating hemizygous interstitial deletion on chromosome 6p25.1, spanning 0.9 kb; the smallest ever reported. Both had dysmorphic features (prominence of the metopic suture, synophrys, hypertelorism, down-slanting palpebral fissures, tented mouth), and a distinct brain MRI, showing a focal significant increase of the right peri-frontal subarachnoid space, with shallow sulci and a mild anomaly of the gyral pattern. Such brain anomaly has never been reported in association with del 6p25. Both propositi had a borderline-mild intellectual disability, speech and language difficulties, and behavior abnormalities. Their mother, formally tested, had a borderline cognitive impairment. Although none of the genes mapping to the deleted region are apparently related to the phenotype, LYRM4 resulted down-regulated in the cerebellar cortex of schizophrenia patients compared with controls, and LYRM4 was down-regulated in the prefrontal cortex of mice with microdeletions in the locus syntenic to human 22q11.2 patients affected by schizophrenia. These data are in agreement with the emerging concept that similar CNVs are pathogenic in patients affected by distinct neurological diseases, and that these loci are more general risk factors for different disorders. The resemblance of our patients to those with the more extensive 6p25.1p25.3 terminal deletion suggests that the gene/s responsible for the physical phenotype should reside in the 6p25.1 genomic region.