1J Affect Disord 2010 Oct 126: 312-6
TitleA genome-wide association study of bipolar disorder in Norwegian individuals, followed by replication in Icelandic sample.
AbstractIn the present study we investigated genetic variants associated with bipolar disorder in a homogenous Norwegian sample, and potential genetic overlap with schizophrenia, using the Affymetrix 6.0 array.
We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) by genotyping 620 390 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a case-control sample of Norwegian origin (the TOP study) including bipolar disorder (n=194), healthy controls (n=336) and schizophrenia (n=230), followed by replication and combined analysis in a genetically concordant Icelandic sample of bipolar disorder (n=435), and healthy controls (n=10,258).
We selected 1000 markers with the lowest P values in the TOP discovery GWAS and tested these (or their surrogates) for association in the Icelandic replication sample. Polymorphisms on 35 loci were confirmed associated with bipolar disorder (nominal P value<0.05; not corrected for multiple testing) in the replication sample. The most significant markers were located in DLEU2, GUCY1B2, PKIA, CCL2, CNTNAP5, DPP10, and FBN1. The combined group of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder compared to controls did not provide additional significant findings.
Relatively small number of samples.
We detected weak but reproducible association with markers in several genes, in proximity to susceptibility loci found in previous GWAS studies of bipolar disorder. Further work is required to study their localization, expression, and regulation and international meta-analytic efforts will help to further elucidate their role.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2PLoS ONE 2014 -1 9: e94968
TitleHeat shock alters the expression of schizophrenia and autism candidate genes in an induced pluripotent stem cell model of the human telencephalon.
Abstractschizophrenia (SZ) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, although environmental factors, such as maternal immune activation (MIA), play a role as well. Cytokines mediate the effects of MIA on neurogenesis and behavior in animal models. However, MIA stimulators can also induce a febrile reaction, which could have independent effects on neurogenesis through heat shock (HS)-regulated cellular stress pathways. However, this has not been well-studied. To help understand the role of fever in MIA, we used a recently described model of human brain development in which induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) differentiate into 3-dimensional neuronal aggregates that resemble a first trimester telencephalon. RNA-seq was carried out on aggregates that were heat shocked at 39C for 24 hours, along with their control partners maintained at 37C. 186 genes showed significant differences in expression following HS (p<0.05), including known HS-inducible genes, as expected, as well as those coding for NGFR and a number of SZ and ASD candidates, including SMARCA2, DPP10, ARNT2, AHI1 and ZNF804A. The degree to which the expression of these genes decrease or increase during HS is similar to that found in copy loss and copy gain copy number variants (CNVs), although the effects of HS are likely to be transient. The dramatic effect on the expression of some SZ and ASD genes places HS, and perhaps other cellular stressors, into a common conceptual framework with disease-causing genetic variants. The findings also suggest that some candidate genes that are assumed to have a relatively limited impact on SZ and ASD pathogenesis based on a small number of positive genetic findings, such as SMARCA2 and ARNT2, may in fact have a much more substantial role in these disorders - as targets of common environmental stressors.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
3Biol. Psychiatry 2014 Jun 75: 961-9
TitleThe genome in three dimensions: a new frontier in human brain research.
AbstractLess than 1.5% of the human genome encodes protein. However, vast portions of the human genome are subject to transcriptional and epigenetic regulation, and many noncoding regulatory DNA elements are thought to regulate the spatial organization of interphase chromosomes. For example, chromosomal "loopings" are pivotal for the orderly process of gene expression, by enabling distal regulatory enhancer or silencer elements to directly interact with proximal promoter and transcription start sites, potentially bypassing hundreds of kilobases of interspersed sequence on the linear genome. To date, however, epigenetic studies in the human brain are mostly limited to the exploration of DNA methylation and posttranslational modifications of the nucleosome core histones. In contrast, very little is known about the regulation of supranucleosomal structures. Here, we show that chromosome conformation capture, a widely used approach to study higher-order chromatin, is applicable to tissue collected postmortem, thereby informing about genome organization in the human brain. We introduce chromosome conformation capture protocols for brain and compare higher-order chromatin structures at the chromosome 6p22.2-22.1 schizophrenia and bipolar disorder susceptibility locus, and additional neurodevelopmental risk genes, (DPP10, MCPH1) in adult prefrontal cortex and various cell culture systems, including neurons derived from reprogrammed skin cells. We predict that the exploration of three-dimensional genome architectures and function will open up new frontiers in human brain research and psychiatric genetics and provide novel insights into the epigenetic risk architectures of regulatory noncoding DNA.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia