|Recently, ubiquitin-specific peptidase 46 (USP46) has been identified as a quantitative trait gene responsible for immobility in the tail suspension test and forced swimming test in mice. Mice with 3-bp deletion in USP46 exhibited loss of 'behavioral despair' under inescapable stresses in addition to abnormalities in circadian behavioral rhythms and the GABAergic system. Considering the face and construct validity as an animal model for bipolar disorder, we explored an association of USP46 and bipolar disorder in a Japanese population. We also examined an association of USP46 and schizophrenia. We found nominal evidence for an association of rs12646800 and schizophrenia. This association was not significant after correction for multiple testing. No significant association was detected for bipolar disorder. In conclusion, our data argue against the presence of any strong genetic susceptibility factors for bipolar disorder or schizophrenia in the region USP46.