1Neuropsychopharmacology 2001 May 24: 553-60
PMID11282255
TitleThe variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene is not associated with significant change in dopamine transporter phenotype in humans.
AbstractA 40 base polymorphism of a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) has been described in the 3' untranslated region of the gene (SLC6A3) coding for the dopamine transporter (DAT). Despite being located in the untranslated region of the gene, this polymorphism has been associated with clinical phenotypes associated with dysregulation of dopamine transmission, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and cocaine-induced paranoia. To examine the neurochemical phenotype associated with this polymorphism, we compared amphetamine-induced dopamine release (measured as displacement of the radiotracer [123I]IBZM) and DAT expression (measured with [123I]beta-CIT) in the striatum with Single Photon Computerized Emission Tomography (SPECT). Our sample included 59 subjects, 31 healthy controls and 29 patients with schizophrenia. No significant association was found between VNTR polymorphism and amphetamine-induced dopamine release or DAT density in the total sample, nor when each diagnostic group was considered separately. Thus, we did not replicate the findings of two previous studies, which had suggested that the 9 repeat allele was associated with either an increased or decreased DAT expression, albeit in different patient populations.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
2Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2004 Feb 125B: 69-78
PMID14755448
TitleClinical features of psychotic disorders and polymorphisms in HT2A, DRD2, DRD4, SLC6A3 (DAT1), and BDNF: a family based association study.
Abstractschizophrenia is clinically heterogeneous and multidimensional, but it is not known whether this is due to etiological heterogeneity. Previous studies have not consistently reported association between any specific polymorphisms and clinical features of schizophrenia, and have primarily used case-control designs. We tested for the presence of association between clinical features and polymorphisms in the genes for the serotonin 2A receptor (HT2A), dopamine receptor types 2 and 4, dopamine transporter (SLC6A3), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Two hundred seventy pedigrees were ascertained on the basis of having two or more members with schizophrenia or poor outcome schizoaffective disorder. Diagnoses were made using a structured interview based on the SCID. All patients were rated on the major symptoms of schizophrenia scale (MSSS), integrating clinical and course features throughout the course of illness. Factor analysis revealed positive, negative, and affective symptom factors. The program QTDT was used to implement a family-based test of association for quantitative traits, controlling for age and sex. We found suggestive evidence of association between the His452Tyr polymorphism in HT2A and affective symptoms (P = 0.02), the 172-bp allele of BDNF and negative symptoms (P = 0.04), and the 480-bp allele in SLC6A3 (= DAT1) and negative symptoms (P = 0.04). As total of 19 alleles were tested, we cannot rule out false positives. However, given prior evidence of involvement of the proteins encoded by these genes in psychopathology, our results suggest that more attention should be focused on the impact of these alleles on clinical features of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
3Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2004 Dec 62: 973-6
PMID15608954
TitleLack of association between VNTR polymorphism of dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) and schizophrenia in a Brazilian sample.
AbstractA role of dopaminergic dysfunction has been postulated in the aetiology of schizophrenia. We hypothesized that variations in the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) may be associated with schizophrenia. We conducted case-control and family based analysis on the polymorphic SLC6A3 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in a sample of 220 schizophrenic patients, 226 gender and ethnic matched controls, and 49 additional case-parent trios. No differences were found in allelic or genotypic distributions between cases and controls and no significant transmission distortions from heterozygous parents to schizophrenic offspring were detected. Thus, our results do not support an association of the SLC6A3 VNTR with schizophrenia in our sample.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
4Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2004 Dec 62: 973-6
PMID15608954
TitleLack of association between VNTR polymorphism of dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) and schizophrenia in a Brazilian sample.
AbstractA role of dopaminergic dysfunction has been postulated in the aetiology of schizophrenia. We hypothesized that variations in the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) may be associated with schizophrenia. We conducted case-control and family based analysis on the polymorphic SLC6A3 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in a sample of 220 schizophrenic patients, 226 gender and ethnic matched controls, and 49 additional case-parent trios. No differences were found in allelic or genotypic distributions between cases and controls and no significant transmission distortions from heterozygous parents to schizophrenic offspring were detected. Thus, our results do not support an association of the SLC6A3 VNTR with schizophrenia in our sample.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
5Am J Pharmacogenomics 2005 -1 5: 149-60
PMID15952869
TitleGenetics and epigenetics in major psychiatric disorders: dilemmas, achievements, applications, and future scope.
AbstractNo specific gene has been identified for any major psychiatric disorder, including schizophrenia, in spite of strong evidence supporting a genetic basis for these complex and devastating disorders. There are several likely reasons for this failure, ranging from poor study design with low statistical power to genetic mechanisms such as polygenic inheritance, epigenetic interactions, and pleiotropy. Most study designs currently in use are inadequate to uncover these mechanisms. However, to date, genetic studies have provided some valuable insight into the causes and potential therapies for psychiatric disorders. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that the understanding of the genetic etiology of psychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia, will be more successful with integrative approaches considering both genetic and epigenetic factors. For example, several genes including those encoding dopamine receptors (DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4), serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) have been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia and related disorders through meta-analyses and large, multicenter studies. There is also growing evidence for the role of DRD1, NMDA receptor genes (GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Recent studies have indicated that epigenetic modification of reelin (RELN), BDNF, and the DRD2 promoters confer susceptibility to clinical psychiatric conditions. Pharmacologic therapy of psychiatric disorders will likely be more effective once the molecular pathogenesis is known. For example, the hypoactive alleles of DRD2 and the hyperactive alleles of COMT, which degrade the dopamine in the synaptic cleft, are associated with schizophrenia. It is likely that insufficient dopaminergic transmission in the frontal lobe plays a role in the development of negative symptoms associated with this disorder. Antipsychotic therapies with a partial dopamine D2 receptor agonist effect may be a plausible alternative to current therapies, and would be effective in symptom reduction in psychotic individuals. It is also possible that therapies employing dopamine D1/D2 receptor agonists or COMT inhibitors will be beneficial for patients with negative symptoms in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The complex etiology of schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders, warrants the consideration of both genetic and epigenetic systems and the careful design of experiments to illumine the genetic mechanisms conferring liability for these disorders and the benefit of existing and new therapies.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
6Schizophr. Res. 2005 Feb 73: 55-8
PMID15567077
TitleMeta-analysis shows schizophrenia is not associated with the 40-base-pair repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene.
AbstractSeveral case-control studies examined an association between schizophrenia and the 40-bp variable number tandem repeat (VTNR) polymorphism in the 3'-UTR of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3). The results of these studies have been equivocal due to small sample size and low power. This meta-analysis has the aim to evaluate the collective evidence for an association between the VTNR polymorphism and schizophrenia.
Different meta-analyses were performed, sequentially considering the 9- and 10-repeat alleles and different genotypes (genotypes 9/9, 9/10, 10/10) as risk factors for schizophrenia. Analyses of the alleles included 659 cases and 563 controls from six case-control studies.
The pooled OR from each analysis approximated 1.0, and none were significant. Lack of significance attributable to the negative effects of single large studies or to heterogeneity between the studies was excluded.
Despite over 90% power to detect a significant odds ratio as small as 1.3, no association was observed. Considering the cumulative evidence from six case-control studies and results from additional family-based studies, it seems unlikely that the 40-base-pair VTNR polymorphism of the SLC6A3 gene influences risk for schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
7Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2006 Dec 60: 764-7
PMID17109713
TitleSchizotypy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dopamine genes.
AbstractPrevious research has suggested that there may be overlap between schizophrenia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The relationship between schizotypal personality traits, ADHD features and polymorphisms was evaluated in dopamine-related genes. Thirty-one healthy, Caucasian men completed the Rust Inventory of schizotypal Cognitions (RISC) and the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met, dopamine receptors of the D3 type (DRD3) Ser9Gly, DRD4 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), and SLC6A3 VNTR polymorphisms were analyzed. RISC score was correlated with ASRS score (r = 0.54, P = 0.003). COMT Met homozygotes had higher ASRS scores than Val homozygotes (P = 0.005). These findings are consistent with evidence of overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD and support an involvement of COMT genotype in ADHD features.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
8Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2006 Dec 60: 764-7
PMID17109713
TitleSchizotypy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dopamine genes.
AbstractPrevious research has suggested that there may be overlap between schizophrenia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The relationship between schizotypal personality traits, ADHD features and polymorphisms was evaluated in dopamine-related genes. Thirty-one healthy, Caucasian men completed the Rust Inventory of schizotypal Cognitions (RISC) and the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met, dopamine receptors of the D3 type (DRD3) Ser9Gly, DRD4 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), and SLC6A3 VNTR polymorphisms were analyzed. RISC score was correlated with ASRS score (r = 0.54, P = 0.003). COMT Met homozygotes had higher ASRS scores than Val homozygotes (P = 0.005). These findings are consistent with evidence of overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD and support an involvement of COMT genotype in ADHD features.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
9Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2006 Dec 60: 764-7
PMID17109713
TitleSchizotypy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dopamine genes.
AbstractPrevious research has suggested that there may be overlap between schizophrenia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The relationship between schizotypal personality traits, ADHD features and polymorphisms was evaluated in dopamine-related genes. Thirty-one healthy, Caucasian men completed the Rust Inventory of schizotypal Cognitions (RISC) and the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met, dopamine receptors of the D3 type (DRD3) Ser9Gly, DRD4 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), and SLC6A3 VNTR polymorphisms were analyzed. RISC score was correlated with ASRS score (r = 0.54, P = 0.003). COMT Met homozygotes had higher ASRS scores than Val homozygotes (P = 0.005). These findings are consistent with evidence of overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD and support an involvement of COMT genotype in ADHD features.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
10Handb Exp Pharmacol 2006 -1 -1: 373-415
PMID16722244
TitleADHD and the dopamine transporter: are there reasons to pay attention?
AbstractThe catecholamine dopamine (DA) plays an important role as a neurotransmitter in the brain in circuits linked to motor function, reward, and cognition. The presynaptic DA transporter (DAT) inactivates DA following release and provides a route for non-exocytotic DA release (efflux) triggered by amphetamines. The synaptic role of DATs first established through antagonist studies and more recently validated through mouse gene-knockout experiments, raises questions as to whether altered DAT structure or regulation support clinical disorders linked to compromised DA signaling, including drug abuse, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As ADHD appears to have highly heritable components and the most commonly prescribed therapeutics for ADHD target DAT, studies ranging from brain imaging to genomic and genetic analyses have begun to probe the DAT gene and its protein for possible contributions to the disorder and/or its treatment. In this review, after a brief overview of ADHD prevalence and diagnostic criteria, we examine the rationale and experimental findings surrounding a role for human DAT in ADHD. Based on the available evidence from our lab and labs of workers in the field, we suggest that although a common variant within the human DAT (hDAT) gene (SLC6A3) is unlikely to play a major role in the ADHD, contributions of hDAT to risk maybe most evident in phenotypic subgroups. The in vitro and in vivo validation of functional variants, pursued for contributions to endophenotypes in a within family approach, may help elucidate DAT and DA contributions to ADHD and its treatment.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
11Pharmacogenomics 2007 Oct 8: 1337-45
PMID17979508
TitleDopamine transporter polymorphisms and risperidone response in Chinese schizophrenia patients: an association study.
AbstractRisperidone is a widely used atypical antipsychotic medication and there is currently considerable interest in individual differences in patient response to it. In this study, we investigated the pharmacogenetic correlates of SLC6A3 and response to risperidone treatment in 130 Chinese schizophrenia patients. We selected six polymorphisms, including two SNPs in the 5'-regulatory regions, two SNPs in intron 1, one SNP and a variable number tandem repeat in the 3'-flanking region of SLC6A3 for this study and analyzed the differences in the reduction of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores among the subgroups with different genotypes and diplotypes after 8 weeks of risperidone treatment. The confounding effects of nongenetic factors were estimated and the baseline symptom score was included as a covariate for adjustment. We found no significant differences in response to treatment in terms of PANSS or subscores improvements among the subgroups according to different genotypes and diplotypes. In addition, we have found no significant differences between different diplotypic groups in the plasma levels of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone. Further studies on larger groups and on the effects of longer-term risperidone treatment are needed to confirm these results.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
12Schizophr. Res. 2007 Feb 90: 115-22
PMID17150335
TitleDopamine transporter (DAT) genotype (VNTR) and phenotype in extrapyramidal symptoms induced by antipsychotics.
AbstractImpaired dopamine transporter (DAT) function may be involved in antipsychotic (AP)-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). A polymorphism involving a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) has been described in the DAT gene (SLC6A3).
We studied whether the SLC6A3 VNTR polymorphism is a risk or protection factor for AP-induced EPS. We also investigated the relationship between the polymorphism and DAT availability in the schizophrenic patient's brain.
Sixty-one patients receiving AP therapy participated in the EPS study. Of these, thirty-two cases presented EPS (Simpson-Angus >3) and twenty-nine without EPS (Simpson-Angus < or =3). The DAT expression was studied in fifteen AP-naive patients by [(123)I] FP-CIT SPECT.
No significant differences were observed for the more common alleles ((*)9R and (*)10R) or for genotype frequencies between patients with EPS and those without EPS. The frequency of the (*)9R and (*)10R alleles was similar to that described in other European populations. There were no significant differences in striatal DAT binding among the three major VNTR genotype groups.
Our results suggest that the VNTR polymorphism did not influence AP-induced EPS and did not affect DAT gene expression or protein function.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
13Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2008 Dec 30: 341-5
PMID19142409
TitleMolecular genetic case-control women investigation from the first Brazilian high-risk study on functional psychosis.
AbstractData from epidemiological studies have demonstrated that genetics is an important risk factor for psychosis. The present study is part of a larger project, pioneer in Brazil, which has been conducted by other researchers who intend to follow a high-risk population (children) for the development of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In this first phase of the project, the objective was to investigate the distribution of four candidate genetic polymorphisms for functional psychosis (Ser9Gly DRD3, 5HTTLPR, the VNTR 3'-UTR SLC6A3 and Val66Met BDNF) in a case-control sample.
A total of 105 women (58 with schizophrenia and 47 with bipolar disorder) and 62 gender-matched controls were investigated.
Allele and genotype distributions of all identified functional polymorphisms did not differ statistically between cases and controls.
These results suggest that the investigated polymorphisms were not related to susceptibility to functional psychoses in our Brazilian sample. These findings need to be validated in larger and independent studies.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
14Hum. Mol. Genet. 2008 Mar 17: 747-58
PMID18045777
TitleA network of dopaminergic gene variations implicated as risk factors for schizophrenia.
AbstractWe evaluated the hypothesis that dopaminergic polymorphisms are risk factors for schizophrenia (SZ). In stage I, we screened 18 dopamine-related genes in two independent US Caucasian samples: 150 trios and 328 cases/501 controls. The most promising associations were detected with SLC6A3 (alias DAT), DRD3, COMT and SLC18A2 (alias VMAT2). In stage II, we comprehensively evaluated these four genes by genotyping 68 SNPs in all 478 cases and 501 controls from stage I. Fifteen (23.1%) significant associations were found (p < or = 0.05). We sought epistasis between pairs of SNPs providing evidence of a main effect and observed 17 significant interactions (169 tests); 41.2% of significant interactions involved rs3756450 (5' near promoter) or rs464049 (intron 4) at SLC6A3. In stage III, we confirmed our findings by genotyping 65 SNPs among 659 Bulgarian trios. Both SLC6A3 variants implicated in the US interactions were overtransmitted in this cohort (rs3756450, p = 0.035; rs464049, p = 0.011). Joint analyses from stages II and III identified associations at all four genes (p(joint) < 0.05). We tested 29 putative interactions from stage II and detected replication between seven locus pairs (p < or = 0.05). Simulations suggested our stage II and stage III interaction results were unlikely to have occurred by chance (p = 0.008 and 0.001, respectively). In stage IV we evaluated rs464049 and rs3756450 for functional effects and found significant allele-specific differences at rs3756450 using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and dual-luciferase promoter assays. Our data suggest that a network of dopaminergic polymorphisms increase risk for SZ.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
15J. Neurosci. 2008 Jul 28: 7040-6
PMID18614672
TitleAnomalous dopamine release associated with a human dopamine transporter coding variant.
AbstractDopamine (DA) signaling at synapses is tightly coordinated through opposing mechanisms of vesicular fusion-mediated DA release and transporter-mediated DA clearance. Altered brain DA signaling is suspected to underlie multiple brain disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, bipolar disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We identified a pedigree containing two male children diagnosed with ADHD who share a rare human DA transporter (DAT; SLC6A3) coding variant, Ala559Val. Among >1000 control and affected subjects, the Val559 variant has only been isolated once previously, in a female subject with bipolar disorder. Although hDAT Ala559Val supports normal DAT protein and cell surface expression, as well as normal DA uptake, the variant exhibits anomalous DA efflux from DA-loaded cells. We also demonstrate that hDAT Ala599Val exhibits increased sensitivity to intracellular Na(+), but not intracellular DA, and displays exaggerated DA efflux at depolarized potentials. Remarkably, the two most common ADHD medications, amphetamine and methylphenidate, both block hDAT Ala559Val-mediated DA efflux, whereas these drugs have opposite actions at wild-type hDAT. Our findings reveal that DA efflux, typically associated with amphetamine-like psychostimulants, can be produced through a heritable change in hDAT structure. Because multiple gene products are known to coordinate to support amphetamine-mediated DA efflux, the properties of hDAT Ala559Val may have broader significance in identifying a new mechanism through which DA signaling disorders arise. Additionally, they suggest that block of inappropriate neurotransmitter efflux may be an unsuspected mechanism supporting the therapeutic actions of existing transporter-directed medications.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
16J. Genet. 2009 Dec 88: 321-3
PMID20086298
TitleLack of association between the -839C/T polymorphism in the SLC6A3 gene promoter and schizophrenia in the Iranian population.
Abstract-1
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
17Croat. Med. J. 2009 Aug 50: 361-9
PMID19673036
TitleAssociation of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms on 8 candidate genes in dopaminergic pathway with schizophrenia in Croatian population.
AbstractTo perform a comprehensive evaluation of association of common genetic variants in candidate genes in the dopaminergic pathway with schizophrenia in a sample from Croatian population.
A case-control association study was performed on 104 unrelated patients with schizophrenia recruited from a psychiatric hospital in Zagreb and 131 phenotypically normal Croatian subjects. Forty-nine tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in 8 candidate genes in the dopaminergic pathway were identified from the HapMap database and tested for association. Genotyping was performed using the SNPlex platform. Statistical analysis was conducted to assess allelic and genotypic associations between cases and controls using a goodness of fit chi(2) test and trend test, respectively; adjustment for multiple testing was done by permutation based analysis.
Significant allele frequency differences between schizophrenia cases and controls were observed at 4 tagSNPs located in the genes DRD5, HTR1B1, DBH, and TH1 (P<0.005). A trend test also confirmed the genotypic association (P<0.001) of these 4 tagSNPs. Additionally, moderate association (P<0.05) was observed with 8 tagSNPs on SLC6A3, DBH, DRD4, SLC6A4, and COMT.
Common genetic variants in genes involved in the dopaminergic pathway are associated with schizophrenia in the populations of Caucasian descent.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
18Coll Antropol 2010 Dec 34: 1427-32
PMID21874733
TitleComparative study on gene tags of the neurotransmission system in schizophrenic and suicidal subjects.
Abstractschizophrenia and suicidal behaviour are sever and complex mental disorders, largely determined by factors of inheritance. Both disorders present pathological changes in the catecholamine neurotransmitter system. The study was conducted on three groups; a group of subjects suffering from schizophrenia, a second compounded by individuals who attempted suicide and a third group of phenotypically healthy examinees. The blood samples of schizophrenic patients as of those who attempted suicide were obtained at the Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan" in Zagreb in the year 2004. Tests were conducted on the statistic relation between a total of 18 SNPs within three candidate-genes of the dopamine and adrenergic system (DRD4, SLC6A3 and ADRA2B) and the manifestation of schzophrenia and suicidal behaviour. Cases were genotyped by use of SNPlex system. Statistically significant differences were determined in the allelic frequency between the mentioned groups. Findings show a significant connection between 4 SNPs (ADRA2B rs749457, SLC6A3 rs464094, DRD4 rs11246226 and rs4331145) and schizophrenia, and 2 SNPs with suicidal attempt (ADRA2B rs1018351 i SLC6A3 rs403636). In addition, this is the first study that highlights the potential role/effect of polymorphisms in ADRA2B on the manifestation of schizophrenia, as on suicidal behaviour.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
19Coll Antropol 2010 Dec 34: 1427-32
PMID21874733
TitleComparative study on gene tags of the neurotransmission system in schizophrenic and suicidal subjects.
Abstractschizophrenia and suicidal behaviour are sever and complex mental disorders, largely determined by factors of inheritance. Both disorders present pathological changes in the catecholamine neurotransmitter system. The study was conducted on three groups; a group of subjects suffering from schizophrenia, a second compounded by individuals who attempted suicide and a third group of phenotypically healthy examinees. The blood samples of schizophrenic patients as of those who attempted suicide were obtained at the Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan" in Zagreb in the year 2004. Tests were conducted on the statistic relation between a total of 18 SNPs within three candidate-genes of the dopamine and adrenergic system (DRD4, SLC6A3 and ADRA2B) and the manifestation of schzophrenia and suicidal behaviour. Cases were genotyped by use of SNPlex system. Statistically significant differences were determined in the allelic frequency between the mentioned groups. Findings show a significant connection between 4 SNPs (ADRA2B rs749457, SLC6A3 rs464094, DRD4 rs11246226 and rs4331145) and schizophrenia, and 2 SNPs with suicidal attempt (ADRA2B rs1018351 i SLC6A3 rs403636). In addition, this is the first study that highlights the potential role/effect of polymorphisms in ADRA2B on the manifestation of schizophrenia, as on suicidal behaviour.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
20Behav. Genet. 2010 May 40: 415-23
PMID20033274
TitleCatechol-o-methyltransferase genotype and childhood trauma may interact to impact schizotypal personality traits.
AbstractWe attempt to identify gene by childhood abuse interactions which predispose to the development of schizotypal traits in a familial bipolar disorder (BD) sample. Self-report measures of schizotypal personality traits (schizotypal Personality Scale) and childhood maltreatment (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) were administered to 222 participants from 44 families with BD. Variants of catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) and four other dopamine pathway-related genes: DRD4, DRD2,MAOA, and SLC6A3, were typed. BD type I (BD I) subjects scored significantly higher than their unaffected relatives on the schizotypal Personality Scale. The val allele of the Val158 Met polymorphism of the COMT gene was associated with increased schizotypal personality trait scores in individuals exposed to higher levels of self-reported childhood trauma (p < 0.05). There was no direct effect of the val158met polymorphism on schizotypal personality traits. Further, no passive correlation between COMT genotype and childhood trauma was found. We raise the possibility that genetically-driven variation in COMT may interact with childhood trauma to contribute to the risk of developing schizotypal personality traits.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
21Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2010 Oct 68: 716-9
PMID21049181
TitleAssociation between the SLC6A3 A1343G polymorphism and schizophrenia.
AbstractEpidemiological studies have demonstrated that the genetic component is an important risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. The genes that codify the different compounds of the dopaminergic system have created interest for molecular investigations in patients with schizophrenia because the antipsychotic drugs, especially those of first generation, act on this cerebral system. Thus the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association between a new single nucleotide polymorphism (rs6347) located in exon 9 of the protein transporter (SLC6A3) and schizophrenia. The distribution of the alleles and genotypes of the studied polymorphism was investigated in a sample of 235 patients and 834 controls matched by gender and age. There were statistical differences in the allelic (?= 5.97, 1d.f. , p = 0.01, OR = 1.33-1.05 < OR < 1.69) and genotypic (? = 6.56, 2d.f. , p = 0.03) distributions between patients and controls. Thus the SLC6A3 A1343G polymorphism was associated to the SCZ phenotype in the investigated sample.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
22Schizophr. Res. 2010 Jan 116: 68-74
PMID19879111
TitleAssociation of promoter variants of human dopamine transporter gene with schizophrenia in Han Chinese.
AbstractAlthough dopamine was implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia, the human dopamine transporter gene (DAT1; SLC6A3) has not consistently been associated with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to examine whether six polymorphisms within the DAT1 gene are associated with schizophrenia.
Six polymorphisms of the DAT1 gene (3 SNPs [rs6413429, rs2652511, and rs2975226] in the promoter region, one SNP [rs6347] in exon 9, and one SNP [rs27072]/one variable number tandem repeat [VNTR] in exon 15) were analyzed in 352 Chinese patients with schizophrenia and in 311 healthy controls. Pretreatment psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in a subset of 160 hospitalized schizophrenia patients who were drug-free or drug-nave.
A statistically significant difference in two polymorphisms (rs2652511 and rs2975226) and a promoter region haplotype (rs2652511, rs2975226, and rs6413429) was found between patients and healthy controls. No association with schizophrenia was found for other polymorphisms and another haplotype (3' region). Symptoms severity (PANSS global, positive, negative and general symptoms scores) was similar regardless of DAT1 polymorphism.
The promoter region of the DAT1 gene may play a role in increasing susceptibility to schizophrenia, but does not affect the severity of psychotic symptoms in Han Chinese.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
23Schizophr Bull 2010 Sep 36: 977-82
PMID19273584
TitleFunctional analysis of upstream common polymorphisms of the dopamine transporter gene.
AbstractThe human dopamine transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) has been extensively investigated because of its potential involvement in neuropsychiatric disorders. The core elements responsible for its transcription have been identified. A regulatory role for certain genomic variants upstream to the core promoter is known. Recently, other single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in this region and are thought to be associated with schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder. Hence, we have investigated the impact of common SNPs in a 2.8-kilobase region flanking the core promoter region (-2.7 to +63 base pair) in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Haplotypes generated by site-directed mutagenesis revealed varying impact of individual SNPs on promoter activity using dual luciferase assays. In silico analyses also predicted allele-specific binding of transcription factors for some of these SNPs. Though electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated several factors that appeared to bind to specific sites within this region, allele-specific binding was not detected for any SNP apart from rs3756450. We have thus identified novel putative regulatory domains flanking the core promoter of DAT that merit further investigation.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
24Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2010 Feb 34: 26-31
PMID19766158
TitleGenetic polymorphisms in the dopamine-2 receptor (DRD2), dopamine-3 receptor (DRD3), and dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) genes in schizophrenia: Data from an association study.
AbstractTo investigate the association between dopaminergic polymorphisms [DRD2 -141C Ins/Del, DRD3 Ser9Gly, and SLC6A3 VNTR] and schizophrenia.
Two hundred and eighty-eight outpatients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria) [mean age (SD)=36.4 (12.4), 60.1% males] and 421 unrelated healthy controls [mean age (SD)=40.6 (11.3), 51.3% males] from a homogeneous Spanish Caucasian population were genotyped using standard methods.
There was a significant difference in genotype distribution for the DRD2 -141C Ins/Del polymorphism [(chi(2) (2)=12.35, corrected p=0.012]. The -141C Del allele was more common in patients than in controls [0.19 vs. 0.13; chi(2) (1)=9.14, corrected p=0.018, OR (95% CI)=1.57 (1.17-2.10)]. Genotype and allele distributions for DRD3 Ser9Gly and SLC6A3 VNTR polymorphisms were similar in both groups. However, there was tentative evidence of an interaction effect between DRD3 Ser9Gly and SLC6A3 VNTR [Wald=9.56 (4), p=0.049]. Compared to the SLC6A3 10/10 genotype category, the risk of schizophrenia was halved among those with 9/10 [OR=0.51 (95% CI=0.30-0.89), p=0.017]. This protective effect was only present in combination with DRD3 Ser/Ser genotype because of the significant interaction between 9/10 and both Ser/Gly [OR=2.45 (95% CI=1.16-5.17), p=0.019] and Gly/Gly [OR=3.80 (95% CI=1.24-11.63), p=0.019].
This study provides evidence that a genetic variant in the DRD2 gene and possible interaction between DRD3 and SLC6A3 genes are associated with schizophrenia. These findings warrant examination in replication studies.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
25Genes Brain Behav. 2010 Aug 9: 638-47
PMID20497233
TitleNeither single-marker nor haplotype analyses support an association between the dopamine transporter gene and heroin dependence in Han Chinese.
AbstractMuch evidence suggests that dysfunction of dopamine transporter-mediated dopamine transmission may be involved in the pathophysiology of substance abuse and dependence. The aim of this study was to examine whether the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1; SLC6A3) is associated with the development of heroin dependence (HD) and whether DAT1 influences personality traits in patients with HD. Polymorphisms of DAT1 were analyzed in a case-control study of 1046 Han Chinese (615 patients and 431 controls). All participants were screened using a Chinese version of the modified Schedule of Affective Disorder and schizophrenia-Lifetime and all patients met the criteria for HD. Furthermore, a Chinese version of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was used to assess personality traits in the patient group and examine the association between their personality traits and DAT1 polymorphisms. Of the patient group, 271 completed the TPQ. No statistically significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies of all investigated variants between HD patients and controls were observed. In haplotype analyses, four haplotype blocks of DAT1 were not associated with the development of HD. These DAT1 polymorphisms did not influence novelty seeking and harm avoidance scores in HD patients. This study suggests that the DAT1 gene may not contribute to the risk of HD and specific personality traits in HD among the Han Chinese population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
26Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2010 Dec 153B: 1434-47
PMID20957647
TitleFine-mapping reveals novel alternative splicing of the dopamine transporter.
AbstractThe dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3, DAT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia (SZ). We previously detected association between SZ and intronic SLC6A3 variants that replicated in two independent Caucasian samples, but had no obvious function. In follow-up analyses, we sequenced the coding and intronic regions of SLC6A3 to identify complete linkage disequilibrium patterns of common variations. We genotyped 78 polymorphisms, narrowing the potentially causal region to two correlated clusters of associated SNPs localized predominantly to introns 3 and 4. Our computational analysis of these intronic regions predicted a novel cassette exon within intron 3, designated E3b, which is conserved among primates. We confirmed alternative splicing of E3b in post-mortem human substantia nigra (SN). As E3b introduces multiple in-frame stop codons, the SLC6A3 open reading frame is truncated and the spliced product may undergo nonsense mediated decay. Thus, factors that increase E3b splicing could reduce the amount of unspliced product available for translation. Observations consistent with this prediction were made using cellular assays and in post-mortem human SN. In mini-gene constructs, the extent of splicing is also influenced by at least two common haplotypes, so the alternative splicing was evaluated in relation to SZ risk. Meta-analyses across genome-wide association studies did not support the initial associations and further post-mortem studies did not suggest case-control differences in splicing. These studies do not provide a compelling link to schizophrenia. However, the impact of the alternative splicing on other neuropsychiatric disorders should be investigated. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
27Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract 2010 Sep 14: 228-32
PMID24917325
TitleNo influence of SLC6A3 40 base VNTR polymorphism on the response to risperidone.
AbstractAbstract Objectives. The SLC6A3 40 base variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism has been associated with several clinical phenotypes associated with dysregulation of dopamine transmission. However, there is only little evidence about a possible influence of such genetic variant on the response to antipsychotics. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether SLC6A3 40 base VNTR polymorphism could modulate response to risperidone in a sample of Korean schizophrenia subjects. Methods. One hundred and forty-two schizophrenia inpatients were treated with a flexible dose of risperidone. Efficacy was assessed at baseline and at discharge using the scores of the Clinical Global Impression-severity (CGI-S), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Positive and Negative Symptom Score (PANSS). Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to test possible influences of SLC6A3 VNTR variants on clinical scores. Results. None of the genotypes and of the alleles under investigation was associated with clinical scores at discharge or with changes of clinical scores over time. In addition, we also failed to find any association between genotypes and allele frequency distribution in accordance with treatment response defined as a 20% (or 30%) or more reduction in the total PANSS scores from the baseline to the end of treatment. Conclusion. Our findings do not suggest a possible association between SLC6A3 40 base VNTR polymorphism and response to risperidone. However, because of several limitations including the investigation of a single drug, the flexible design of the present study and the absence of a complete coverage of features which could influence the response, further investigations could be required.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
28Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2010 Aug 34: 1026-32
PMID20580759
TitlePharacogenetic effects of dopamine transporter gene polymorphisms on response to chlorpromazine and clozapine and on extrapyramidal syndrome in schizophrenia.
AbstractA number of studies have investigated the effectiveness of the dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) Gene as an antipsychotic target. However, the focus has mainly been on a 40-bp variable number of a tandem repeat (VNTR) in the 3'-region and results have been inconsistent. To fully evaluate SLC6A3 as a therapeutic antipshycotic target we investigated association of the gene with responses to chlorpromazine and clozapine and with chlorpromazine-induced extrapyramidal syndrome (EPS) in the Chinese schizophrenia population. Six polymorphisms across the whole region of this gene were analyzed, namely rs2652511 (T-844C) and rs2975226 (T-71A) in the 5'-regulatory region, rs2963238 (A1491C) in intron 1, a 30-bp VNTR in intron 8, rs27072 and the 40-bp VNTR in the 3'-region. We found that the polymorphic marker, rs2975226, showed significant association of allele and genotype frequencies with response to clozapine (allele-wise: adjusted p=0.00404; genotype-wise: adjusted p=0.024), and that patients with the T allele had a better response to the drug. The haplotype block constructed from the first three markers near the 5'-region showed significant association with response to clozapine (for haplotype T-T-A: p=0.0085; for haplotype C-A-C: p=0.0092). We did not identify any significant association of the six genetic variants or haplotypes with EPS after Bonferoni correction. Our findings suggest that the 5'-regulatory region of SLC6A3 plays an important role in response to clozapine and that its role in EPS needs to be replicated in a large-scale well designed study.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
29ACS Chem Neurosci 2011 Jul 2: 370-8
PMID22816024
TitleVisualization of the cocaine-sensitive dopamine transporter with ligand-conjugated quantum dots.
AbstractThe presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter is responsible for DA inactivation following release and is a major target for the psychostimulants cocaine and amphetamine. Dysfunction and/or polymorphisms in human DAT (SLC6A3) have been associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson's disease, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the clinical importance of DAT, many uncertainties remain regarding the transporter's regulation, in part due to the poor spatiotemporal resolution of conventional methodologies and the relative lack of efficient DAT-specific fluorescent probes. We developed a quantum dot-based labeling approach that uses a DAT-specific, biotinylated ligand, 2-?-carbomethoxy-3-?-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (IDT444), that can be bound by streptavidin-conjugated quantum dots. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to detect DAT in stably and transiently transfected mammalian cells. IDT444 is useful for quantum-dot-based fluorescent assays to monitor DAT expression, function, and plasma membrane trafficking in living cells as evidenced by the visualization of acute, protein-kinase-C (PKC)-dependent DAT internalization.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
30Synapse 2011 Oct 65: 998-1005
PMID21404331
TitleRelationship between SLC6A3 genotype and striatal dopamine transporter availability: a meta-analysis of human single photon emission computed tomography studies.
AbstractThe human dopamine transporter (DAT) gene (SLC6A3) contains a 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism. A number of studies have investigated the association of this VNTR with striatal DAT availability in humans using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, the results are not consistent. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis of the association between the SLC6A3 VNTR and striatal DAT binding measured in human SPECT studies. The meta-analysis of five samples of healthy individuals failed to find a significant difference in DAT availability between SLC6A3 9-repeat carriers and 10-repeat homozygotes (P = 0.22) although the 9R carriers had nominally higher striatal DAT levels (g = 0.66). The results remained nonsignificant after the inclusion of patient samples, namely schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Parkinson's disease (four samples; all P > 0.18). To conclude, this meta-analysis provides no evidence to support the hypothesis that the SLC6A3 VNTR is significantly associated with interindividual differences in DAT availability in the human striatum. Further work is needed to clarify the molecular mechanisms by which this polymorphism may affect cognition and psychiatric disorders, if not through altered expression as measured by molecular imaging.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
31Indian J Hum Genet 2012 May 18: 222-5
PMID23162299
TitleLack of association between the G-660C polymorphism in the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) and schizophrenia in the Iranian population.
AbstractDopaminergenic system plays an essential role in the plasticity of the human brain. The dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) mediates active reuptake of dopamine from synapsis, terminates dopamine signals, and therefore, is implicated in a number of dopamine-related disorders like psychosis. Variations in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the core promoter of the SLC6A3 gene are reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In this study, we also attempted to establish the possible role of the polymorphism G-660C in the SLC6A3 gene promoter in schizophrenia in a case-control study.
The allele and genotype frequency were analyzed in an Iranian cohort of 200 unrelated patients and 200 controls using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism.
The genotype frequency for case and control groups was GG 100%, GC 0%, CC 0%, and GG 100%, GC 0%, CC 0%, respectively. The C allele was failed in both groups.
Our data suggest clearly that there is no association between the -660G/C polymorphism and outcome of schizophrenia in the Iranian population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
32Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2012 Dec 262: 667-76
PMID22454241
TitleGenetic polymorphisms of 5-HTT and DAT but not COMT differentially affect verbal and visuospatial working memory functioning.
AbstractWorking memory deficits are found in different psychiatric populations and are most pronounced in schizophrenia. There is preliminary evidence from pharmacological studies that the verbal and visuospatial subcomponents of working memory are subject to differential neurotransmitter modulation. Here, we investigated the impact of well-known polymorphisms of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3, DAT) and the catechol-O-methyl-transferase gene (COMT) as well as the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4, 5-HTT) on these specific working memory subcomponents in a mixed sample of patients and healthy individuals. Twenty healthy subjects and 80 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar I disorder, or obsessive-compulsive disorder underwent genotyping for the DAT variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), the COMT val/met-, and the 5-HTT promoter length polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and neuropsychological testing using a battery of well-characterized, brain circuit-specific working memory tasks. DAT genotype revealed a significant and selective effect on visuospatial working memory, while there was no effect on verbal working memory functioning. 5-HTT genotype, by contrast, exerted a significant and selective effect on verbal working memory task performance. COMT genotype did not show any influence on either working memory domain. The results of the present study provide evidence for a differential impact of genetic polymorphisms of the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems on verbal and visuospatial working memory functioning. Together with prior evidence suggesting the existence of subgroups of schizophrenia patients exhibiting isolated deficits in only one working memory domain, this finding further supports the idea of endophenotypically and pathophysiologically distinct subgroups of schizophrenia with implications for personalized therapeutic approaches.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
33Schizophr Bull 2013 Jul 39: 848-56
PMID22532702
TitleIntermediate phenotype analysis of patients, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls identifies VMAT2 as a candidate gene for psychotic disorder and neurocognition.
AbstractPsychotic disorders are associated with neurocognitive alterations that aggregate in unaffected family members, suggesting that genetic vulnerability to psychotic disorder impacts neurocognition. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether selected schizophrenia candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with (1) neurocognitive functioning across populations at different genetic risk for psychosis (2) and psychotic disorder. The association between 152 SNPs in 43 candidate genes and a composite measure of neurocognitive functioning was examined in 718 patients with psychotic disorder. Follow-up analyses were carried out in 750 unaffected siblings and 389 healthy comparison subjects. In the patients, 13 associations between SNPs and cognitive functioning were significant at P < .05, situated in DRD1, DRD3, SLC6A3, BDNF, FGF2, SLC18A2, FKBP5, and DNMT3B. Follow-up of these SNPs revealed a significant and directionally similar association for SLC18A2 (alternatively VMAT2) rs363227 in siblings (B = -0.13, P = .04) and a trend association in control subjects (B = -0.10, P = .12). This association was accompanied by a significantly increased risk for psychotic disorder associated with the T allele (linear OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.10-2.07, P = .01), which was reduced when covarying for cognitive performance (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 0.92-1.81, P = .14), suggesting mediation. Genetic variation in VMAT2 may be linked to alterations in cognitive functioning underlying psychotic disorder, possibly through altered transport of monoamines into synaptic vesicles.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
34J Psychiatr Res 2013 Nov 47: 1615-22
PMID23932573
TitleDopaminergic gene polymorphisms and cognitive function in a north Indian schizophrenia cohort.
AbstractAssociations of polymorphisms from dopaminergic neurotransmitter pathway genes have mostly been reported in Caucasian ancestry schizophrenia (SZ) samples. As studies investigating single SNPs with SZ have been inconsistent, more detailed analyses utilizing multiple SNPs with the diagnostic phenotype as well as cognitive function may be more informative. Therefore, these analyses were conducted in a north Indian sample.
Indian SZ case-parent trios (n = 601 families); unscreened controls (n = 468) and an independent set of 118 trio families were analyzed. Representative SNPs in the Dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3), dopamine transporter (SLC6A3), vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (SLC18A2), catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) were genotyped using SNaPshot/SNPlex assays (n = 59 SNPs). The Trail Making Test (TMT) was administered to a subset of the sample (n = 260 cases and n = 302 parents).
Eight SNPs were nominally associated with SZ in either case-control or family based analyses (p < 0.05, rs7631540 and rs2046496 in DRD3; rs363399 and rs10082463 in SLC18A2; rs4680, rs4646315 and rs9332377 in COMT). rs6271 at DBH was associated in both analyses. Haplotypes of DRD3 SNPs incorporating rs7631540-rs2134655-rs3773678-rs324030-rs6280-rs905568 showed suggestive associations in both case-parent and trio samples. At SLC18A2, rs10082463 was nominally associated with psychomotor performance and rs363285 with executive functions using the TMT but did not withstand multiple corrections.
Suggestive associations with dopaminergic genes were detected in this study, but convincing links between dopaminergic polymorphisms and SZ or cognitive function were not observed.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
35Front Hum Neurosci 2013 -1 7: 1
PMID23355817
TitleDopaminergic foundations of schizotypy as measured by the German version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE)-a suitable endophenotype of schizophrenia.
AbstractThe concept of schizotypy or "psychosis proneness" captures individual differences in perceptual, cognitive, and affective experiences that may relate to a range of psychotic disorders. The concept is an important way to assess the contribution of pre-existing psychological and genetically based biological features to the development of illnesses such as schizophrenia (so called endophenotypes). The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE) is a widely used multi-dimensional measure of the construct and consists of four scales which mirror several groups of psychotic symptoms: Unusual Experiences (UnEx; positive symptoms), Cognitive Disorganization (CogDis; cognitive symptoms), Introvertive Anhedonia (IntAn; negative symptoms), and Impulsive Nonconformity (ImpNon; impulsive and antisocial symptoms). For the purpose of evaluating the suitability of schizotypy as an endophenotype of schizophrenia the current version of the O-LIFE was translated into German: its psychometric properties (including re-test reliability and construct validity) were examined in a large sample (n > 1200) and compared to those of the English original. The German version was both highly reliable and consistent with the original. The study aimed to show that schizotypy as measured by the O-LIFE can indeed be regarded as an endophenotype of schizophrenia in terms of genetic associations regarding relevant dopamine-related candidate polymorphisms of schizotypy [i.e., Val(158)Met-polymorphism of the COMT gene, uVNTR of the MAOA gene, Taq1A-polymorphism of the DRD2 gene, VNTR of the SLC6A3 (DAT) gene]. We also wanted to compare the genetic associations of the O-LIFE to those published using other operationalizations of schizotypy. Our results show a large number of significant associations and borderline-significant trends between the O-LIFE sub-scales and a range of genes, thereby supporting using the O-LIFE in the search for endophenotypic markers.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
36Front Hum Neurosci 2013 -1 7: 1
PMID23355817
TitleDopaminergic foundations of schizotypy as measured by the German version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE)-a suitable endophenotype of schizophrenia.
AbstractThe concept of schizotypy or "psychosis proneness" captures individual differences in perceptual, cognitive, and affective experiences that may relate to a range of psychotic disorders. The concept is an important way to assess the contribution of pre-existing psychological and genetically based biological features to the development of illnesses such as schizophrenia (so called endophenotypes). The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE) is a widely used multi-dimensional measure of the construct and consists of four scales which mirror several groups of psychotic symptoms: Unusual Experiences (UnEx; positive symptoms), Cognitive Disorganization (CogDis; cognitive symptoms), Introvertive Anhedonia (IntAn; negative symptoms), and Impulsive Nonconformity (ImpNon; impulsive and antisocial symptoms). For the purpose of evaluating the suitability of schizotypy as an endophenotype of schizophrenia the current version of the O-LIFE was translated into German: its psychometric properties (including re-test reliability and construct validity) were examined in a large sample (n > 1200) and compared to those of the English original. The German version was both highly reliable and consistent with the original. The study aimed to show that schizotypy as measured by the O-LIFE can indeed be regarded as an endophenotype of schizophrenia in terms of genetic associations regarding relevant dopamine-related candidate polymorphisms of schizotypy [i.e., Val(158)Met-polymorphism of the COMT gene, uVNTR of the MAOA gene, Taq1A-polymorphism of the DRD2 gene, VNTR of the SLC6A3 (DAT) gene]. We also wanted to compare the genetic associations of the O-LIFE to those published using other operationalizations of schizotypy. Our results show a large number of significant associations and borderline-significant trends between the O-LIFE sub-scales and a range of genes, thereby supporting using the O-LIFE in the search for endophenotypic markers.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
37J Clin Psychopharmacol 2013 Oct 33: 593-9
PMID23963056
TitleThe association study of polymorphisms in DAT, DRD2, and COMT genes and acute extrapyramidal adverse effects in male schizophrenic patients treated with haloperidol.
AbstractExtrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs) are common adverse effects of antipsychotics. The development of acute EPSs could depend on the activity of dopaminergic system and its gene variants. The aim of this study was to determine the association between dopaminergic type 2 receptor (DRD2) dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms and acute EPSs in 240 male schizophrenic patients treated with haloperidol (15-mg/d) over a period of 2 weeks. Acute EPSs were assessed with Simpson-Angus Scale. Three dopaminergic gene polymorphisms, the DRD2 Taq1A, the SLC6A3 VNTR, and the COMT Val158Met, were determined. Extrapyramidal symptoms occurred in 116 (48.3%) of patients. Statistically significant associations were found for SLC6A3 VNTR and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms and EPS susceptibility. Patients with SLC6A3 9/10 genotype had almost twice the odds to develop EPSs compared with those with all other SLC6A3 genotypes (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.30), and patients with COMT Val/Met genotype had 1.7 times greater odds to develop EPSs than those with all other COMT genotypes (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-2.88). There was no statistically significant association between genotype and allele frequencies of DRD2, SLC6A3, or COMT polymorphisms and the development of particular EPSs.In conclusion, the results of the present study showed for the first time the association between acute haloperidol-induced EPSs and SLC6A3 VNTR and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms. Although the precise biological mechanisms underlying these findings are not yet understood, the results suggest that the dopaminergic gene variations could predict the vulnerability to the development of the acute EPSs in haloperidol-treated schizophrenic patients.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
38Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2014 Dec 165B: 635-46
PMID25209194
TitleSynergistic association of PI4KA and GRM3 genetic polymorphisms with poor antipsychotic response in south Indian schizophrenia patients with low severity of illness.
AbstractLiterature indicates key role of glutamatergic pathway genes in antipsychotic response among schizophrenia patients. However, molecular basis of their underlying role in antipsychotic response remained unexplained. Thus, to unravel their molecular underpinnings, we sought to investigate interactions amongst GRM3, SLC1A1, SLC1A2, SLC1A3, SLC1A4 gene polymorphisms with drug response in south Indian schizophrenia patients. We genotyped 48 SNPs from these genes in 423 schizophrenia patients stratified into low and high severity of illness groups. The SNPs and haplotypic combinations of associated SNPs were examined for their association with antipsychotic response. Multifactor-dimensionality-reduction was further used to explore gene-gene interaction among these SNPs and 53 SNPs from previously studied genes (BDNF, RGS4, SLC6A3, PI4KA, and PIP4K2A). Single SNP and haplotype analyses revealed no significant association with drug response irrespective of severity of illness. Gene-gene interaction analyses yielded promising leads, including an observed synergistic effect between PI4KA_rs165854 and GRM3_rs1468412 polymorphisms and incomplete antipsychotic response in schizophrenia patients with low severity of illness (OR = 12.4; 95%CI = 3.69-41.69). Further, this interaction was also observed in atypical monotherapy (n = 355) and risperidone (n = 260) treatment subgroups (OR = 11.21; 95%CI = 3.30-38.12 and OR = 13.5; 95%CI = 3.03-121.61 respectively). PI4KA is known to be involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate which regulates exocytotic fusion of synaptic vesicles (glutamate, dopamine) with the plasma membrane and regulates duration of signal transduction of GPCRs. Whereas GRM3 regulates glutamate and dopamine transmission. Present findings indicate that PI4KA and GRM3 polymorphisms have potential to jointly modulate antipsychotic response. These results warrant additional replication studies to shed further light on these interactions.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
39PLoS ONE 2014 -1 9: e102556
PMID25025909
TitleGenetic variations of PIP4K2A confer vulnerability to poor antipsychotic response in severely ill schizophrenia patients.
AbstractLiterature suggests that disease severity and neurotransmitter signaling pathway genes can accurately identify antipsychotic response in schizophrenia patients. However, putative role of signaling molecules has not been tested in schizophrenia patients based on severity of illness, despite its biological plausibility. In the present study we investigated the possible association of polymorphisms from five candidate genes RGS4, SLC6A3, PIP4K2A, BDNF, PI4KA with response to antipsychotic in variably ill schizophrenia patients. Thus in present study, a total 53 SNPs on the basis of previous reports and functional grounds were examined for their association with antipsychotic response in 423 schizophrenia patients segregated into low and high severity groups. Additionally, haplotype, diplotype, multivariate logistic regression and multifactor-dimensionality reduction (MDR) analyses were performed. Furthermore, observed associations were investigated in atypical monotherapy (n?=?355) and risperidone (n?=?260) treated subgroups. All associations were estimated as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) and test for multiple corrections was applied. Single locus analysis showed significant association of nine variants from SLC6A3, PIP4K2A and BDNF genes with incomplete antipsychotic response in schizophrenia patients with high severity. We identified significant association of six marker diplotype ATTGCT/ATTGCT (rs746203-rs10828317-rs7094131-rs2296624-rs11013052-rs1409396) of PIP4K2A gene in incomplete responders (corrected p-value?=?0.001; adjusted-OR?=?3.19, 95%-CI?=?1.46-6.98) with high severity. These associations were further observed in atypical monotherapy and risperidone sub-groups. MDR approach identified gene-gene interaction among BDNF_rs7103411-BDNF_rs1491851-SLC6A3_rs40184 in severely ill incomplete responders (OR?=?7.91, 95%-CI?=?4.08-15.36). While RGS4_rs2842026-SLC6A3_rs2975226 interacted synergistically in incomplete responders with low severity (OR?=?4.09, 95%-CI?=?2.09-8.02). Our findings provide strong evidence that diplotype ATTGCT/ATTGCT of PIP4K2A gene conferred approximately three-times higher incomplete responsiveness towards antipsychotics in severely ill patients. These results are consistent with the known role of phosphatidyl-inositol-signaling elements in antipsychotic action and outcome. Findings have implication for future molecular genetic studies as well as personalized medicine. However more work is warranted to elucidate underlying causal biological pathway.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
40Neurosci. Lett. 2014 Sep 579: 114-8
PMID25019689
TitleNo association of SLC6A3 and SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms with schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population.
AbstractThe SLC6A3 and SLC6A4 genes are members of a class of neurotransmitter transporters for the release, re-uptake and recycling of neurotransmitters in synapses. SLC6A3 and SLC6A4 encode a dopamine transporter and serotonin transporter, respectively. Abnormal expression and genetic polymorphism of SLC6A3 and SLC6A4 genes may increase the risk of developing mental illness, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and aggressive behavior in Alzheimer disease, etc. Nevertheless, association between SLC6A3, SLC6A4 genes polymorphism and schizophrenia patients have not been well studied in Han Chinese people. In this study, we examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLC6A3, SLC6A4 were associated with schizophrenia in Han Chinese people (893 schizophrenia patients and 611 healthy controls). No significant difference in allelic or genotypic frequency was found between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. No positive linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected either. No haplotypic distributions were positive. Accordingly, our study suggests that the 10 SNPs within both genes we examined do not play a major role in schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
41Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2014 Aug 264: 401-8
PMID24487615
TitleFurther evidence for the association between a polymorphism in the promoter region of SLC6A3/DAT1 and ADHD: findings from a sample of adults.
AbstractThe dopamine transporter (SLC6A3/DAT1) plays a key role in the regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission and is the major site of action for methylphenidate, a first-line medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most genetic association studies with ADHD have investigated a 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the DAT1, but these investigations have reported heterogeneous findings. The few studies focused on the 5' region have reported promising results. Despite rs2652511 not being included, nor having any proxy SNP available in GWAS, the few candidate gene studies that analyzed it suggested an association with ADHD and schizophrenia. Here, we analyzed the -839 C/T (rs2652511) promoter variant and the 3'-UTR and intron 8(Int8) VNTR polymorphisms in 522 adults with ADHD and 628 blood donor controls. The diagnostic procedures followed the DSM-IV criteria. A significant association was detected (P=0.002) between the rs2652511 C-allele with ADHD. In addition, the 6-repeat allele of Int8 VNTR was associated with higher inattention scores (P=0.034). The haplotype analysis including DAT1 3'-UTR and Int8 VNTR polymorphisms did not reveal associations with ADHD susceptibility or severity dimensions. These findings extend to adult samples previous findings from children samples on the role of the rs2652511 polymorphism in the promoter region of DAT1 as a risk factor for ADHD susceptibility.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
42Schizophr. Res. 2016 Jan 170: 30-40
PMID26597662
TitleGenetic assessment of additional endophenotypes from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study.
AbstractThe Consortium on the Genetics of schizophrenia Family Study (COGS-1) has previously reported our efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of 12 primary endophenotypes for schizophrenia. We now report the characterization of 13 additional measures derived from the same endophenotype test paradigms in the COGS-1 families. Nine of the measures were found to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and controls, were significantly heritable (31 to 62%), and were sufficiently independent of previously assessed endophenotypes, demonstrating utility as additional endophenotypes. Genotyping via a custom array of 1536 SNPs from 94 candidate genes identified associations for CTNNA2, ERBB4, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, NOS1AP, NRG1, and RELN across multiple endophenotypes. An experiment-wide p value of 0.003 suggested that the associations across all SNPs and endophenotypes collectively exceeded chance. Linkage analyses performed using a genome-wide SNP array further identified significant or suggestive linkage for six of the candidate endophenotypes, with several genes of interest located beneath the linkage peaks (e.g., CSMD1, DISC1, DLGAP2, GRIK2, GRIN3A, and SLC6A3). While the partial convergence of the association and linkage likely reflects differences in density of gene coverage provided by the distinct genotyping platforms, it is also likely an indication of the differential contribution of rare and common variants for some genes and methodological differences in detection ability. Still, many of the genes implicated by COGS through endophenotypes have been identified by independent studies of common, rare, and de novo variation in schizophrenia, all converging on a functional genetic network related to glutamatergic neurotransmission that warrants further investigation.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
43Schizophr Bull 2016 May 42: 772-81
PMID26707863
TitleIncreased Nigral SLC6A3 Activity in Schizophrenia Patients: Findings From the Toronto-McLean Cohorts.
AbstractSLC6A3, which encodes the primary regulator of extracellular dopamine (DA) concentration, the DA transporter, has been implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ). However, the details of its genetic effect on risk remain largely unknown. The purpose of this candidate gene study was to identify a specificSLC6A3activity associated with SCZ by using functional genetic approaches. We first examined gene activity in DA neurons isolated from case-control postmortem nigral tissue and found that the averageSLC6A3mRNA level in controls was only 0.37-fold of that in cases (P= .0034). To understand this expression difference, we examined the association of 10 genetic markers, mostly located in the promoter region, with SCZ in 1717 subjects collected from Toronto and McLean cohorts, including 881 controls and 836 cases and identified the 5' promoter SNP rs1478435 as having a significant association signal (uncorrectedPvalue: .00462; adjustedPvalue: .0319) in unrelated Caucasians. Allele T was over-represented in controls (OR = .75); T-carrier controls had decreased mRNA levels in nigral DA neurons, contributing to the reduced activity in the controls. In vitro functional analysis confirmed that T carriers displayed attenuated enhancement of promoter activity. These findings collectively suggest that increased nigralSLC6A3activity may be a risk factor for SCZ, and may help to explain high rates of comorbidity with substance abuse.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
44Nord J Psychiatry 2016 May 70: 276-9
PMID26559242
TitleIdentification of rare high-risk copy number variants affecting the dopamine transporter gene in mental disorders.
AbstractThe dopamine transporter, also known as solute carrier 6A3 (SLC6A3), plays an important role in synaptic transmission by regulating the reuptake of dopamine in the synapses. In line with this, variations in the gene encoding this transporter have been linked to both schizophrenia and affective disorders. Recently, copy number variants (CNVs) in SLC6A3 have been identified in healthy subjects but so far, the implication of CNVs affecting this gene in psychiatric diseases has not been addressed.
In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether CNVs affecting SLC6A3 represent rare high-risk variants of psychiatric disorders.
We performed a systematic screening for CNVs affecting SLC6A3 in 761 healthy controls, 672 schizophrenia patients, and 194 patients with bipolar disorder in addition to 253 family members from six large pedigrees affected by mental disorders using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and subsequent verification by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
We identified two duplications and one deletion affecting SLC6A3 in the patients, while no such CNVs were identified in any of the controls. The identified CNVs were of different sizes and two affected several genes in addition to SLC6A3.
Our findings suggest that rare high-risk CNVs affecting the gene encoding the dopamine transporter contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and affective disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal