1Genomics 2000 Jul 67: 69-77
TitleChromosomal location and genomic structure of the human translin-associated factor X gene (TRAX; TSNAX) revealed by intergenic splicing to DISC1, a gene disrupted by a translocation segregating with schizophrenia.
AbstractTwo candidate genes, DISC1 and DISC2 on chromosome 1, are disrupted by a translocation that segregates with major psychiatric illness. Several DISC1 transcripts contain TRAX (HGMW-approved symbol TSNAX) sequence at the 5' end. These transcripts initiate at the 5' end of TRAX and terminate at the final exon of DISC1. Five species of transcript resulting from intergenic splicing have been identified; one encodes a novel TRAX/DISC1 fusion protein. The remaining four transcripts are bicistronic and encode a series of novel truncated isoforms of TRAX and DISC1. Demonstration that the various TRAX/DISC1 transcripts are translated awaits further experimentation. As a consequence of the observation of intergenic splicing, the human TRAX gene has been mapped at least 35 kb proximal to DISC1 and within approximately 150-250 kb of the translocation breakpoint at 1q42.1. The TRAX gene consists of six exons with a putative CpG island at the 5' end. Four major transcripts are produced from this gene, of which the smallest, at 2.7 kb, had previously been identified.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Genomics 2003 Jan 81: 67-77
TitleEvolutionary constraints on the Disrupted in Schizophrenia locus.
AbstractThe Disrupted in schizophrenia (DISC) locus on human chromosome 1q42 has been strongly implicated by genetic studies as a susceptibility locus for major mental illnesses. In humans the locus is transcriptionally complex, with multiple alternate splicing events, antisense transcription, and intergenic splicing all evident. We have compared the genomic sequence and transcription maps of this locus between human, mouse, pufferfish (Fugu rubripes), and, in part, zebrafish (Danio rerio). The order and orientation of EGLN1, TSNAX, and DISC1 genes are conserved between mammals and F. rubripes. Intergenic splicing and short intergenic transcripts are not found to be conserved features. DISC2, a putative noncoding transcript partially antisense to DISC1, is not conserved in mouse or F. rubripes. Alternate splice forms of the protein-coding DISC1 gene are conserved even though the genomic structure is not. The amino acid sequence of DISC1 is diverging rapidly, although a putative nuclear localization signal and discrete blocks of coiled coil are specifically conserved features.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
3Hum. Mol. Genet. 2007 Oct 16: 2517-28
TitleAssociation of distinct allelic haplotypes of DISC1 with psychotic and bipolar spectrum disorders and with underlying cognitive impairments.
AbstractBipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) have at least a partially convergent aetiology and thus may share genetic susceptibility loci. Multiple lines of evidence emphasize the role of disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) gene in psychotic disorders such as SCZ. We monitored the association of allelic variants of translin-associated factor X (TSNAX)/DISC1 gene cluster using 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 723 members of 179 Finnish BPD families. Consistent with an earlier finding in Finnish SCZ families, the haplotype T-A of rs751229 and rs3738401 at the 5' end of DISC1 was over-transmitted to males with psychotic disorder (P = 0.008; for an extended haplotype P = 0.0007 with both genders). Haplotypes at the 3' end of DISC1 associated with bipolar spectrum disorder (P = 0.0002 for an under-transmitted haplotype T-T of rs821616 and rs1411771, for an extended haplotype P = 0.0001), as did a two-SNP risk haplotype at the 5' end of TSNAX (P = 0.007). The risk haplotype for psychotic disorder also associated to perseverations (P = 0.035; for rs751229 alone P = 0.0012), and a protective haplotype G-T-G with rs1655285 in addition to auditory attention (P = 0.0059). The 3' end variants associated with several cognitive traits, with the most robust signal for rs821616 and verbal fluency and rs980989 and psychomotor processing speed (P = 0.011 for both). These results support involvement of DISC1 in the genetic aetiology of BPD and suggest that its distinct variants contribute to variation in the dimensional features of psychotic and bipolar spectrum disorders. Finding of alternative associating haplotypes in the same set of BPD families gives evidence for allelic heterogeneity within DISC1, eventually leading to heterogeneity in the clinical outcome as well.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
4Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009 Sep 106: 15873-8
TitleDISC1 splice variants are upregulated in schizophrenia and associated with risk polymorphisms.
AbstractDisrupted-In-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) is a promising susceptibility gene for major mental illness, but the mechanism of the clinical association is unknown. We searched for DISC1 transcripts in adult and fetal human brain and tested whether their expression is altered in patients with schizophrenia and is associated with genetic variation in DISC1. Many alternatively spliced transcripts were identified, including groups lacking exon 3 (Delta3), exons 7 and 8 (Delta7Delta8), an exon 3 insertion variant (extra short variant-1, Esv1), and intergenic splicing between TSNAX and DISC1. Isoforms Delta7Delta8, Esv1, and Delta3, which encode truncated DISC1 proteins, were expressed more abundantly during fetal development than during postnatal ages, and their expression was higher in the hippocampus of patients with schizophrenia. schizophrenia risk-associated polymorphisms [non-synonymous SNPs rs821616 (Cys704Ser) and rs6675281 (Leu607Phe), and rs821597] were associated with the expression of Delta3 and Delta7Delta8. Moreover, the same allele at rs6675281, which predicted higher expression of these transcripts in the hippocampus, was associated with higher expression of DISC1Delta7Delta8 in lymphoblasts in an independent sample. Our results implicate a molecular mechanism of genetic risk associated with DISC1 involving specific alterations in gene processing.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
5Mol. Psychiatry 2010 Aug 15: 844-9
TitleAssociation of DISC1 and TSNAX genes and affective disorders in the depression case-control (DeCC) and bipolar affective case-control (BACCS) studies.
AbstractThe gene known as Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1, DISC1, was originally discovered in a large family, in which it also co-segregated with bipolar affective disorder (BD) and with major depressive disorder (MDD). The TSNAX (Translin-associated factor X) gene, located immediately upstream of DISC1, has also been suggested as a candidate gene in relation to psychiatric illness, as one transcript resulting from intergenic splicing encodes a novel TSNAX-DISC1 fusion protein. We explored the TSNAX-DISC1 gene region for an association with BD and MDD in a sample of 1984 patients (1469 MDD, 515 BD) and 1376 ethnically matched controls. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the TSNAX-DISC1 region (rs766288, rs3738401, rs2492367, rs6675281, rs12133766, rs1000731, rs7546310 and rs821597) were investigated using the SNPlex Genotyping System. We found a significant allelic and genotypic association of the TSNAX-DISC1 gene region with BD, whereas a haplotypic association was found for both BD and MDD. Therefore, our results suggest an association between the TSNAX-DISC1 region and both forms of affective disorders, and support the hypothesis that a portion of the genotypic overlap between schizophrenia and affective disorders is attributable to this gene.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
6Neuromolecular Med. 2010 Mar 12: 78-85
TitleTranslin-associated factor X gene (TSNAX) may be associated with female major depressive disorder in the Japanese population.
AbstractSeveral investigations have reported that the translin-associated factor X gene (TSNAX)/disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 gene (DISC1) was associated with major psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BP), and major depressive disorder (MDD). TSNAX is located immediately upstream of DISC1, and has been shown to undergo intergenic splicing with DISC1. It thus may also be influenced by translocation. To our knowledge, there are no reported gene-based association analyses between TSNAX and mood disorders in the Japanese population. We conducted a case-control study of Japanese samples (158 bipolar patients, 314 major depressive disorder patients, and 811 controls) with three tagging SNPs in TSNAX, selected using HapMap database. In addition, we performed an association analysis between TSNAX and the efficacy of fluvoxamine treatment in 120 Japanese patients with MDD. The MDD patients in this study had scores of 12 or higher on the 17 items of the Structured Interview Guide for Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (SIGH-D). We defined a clinical response as a decrease of more than 50% in baseline SIGH-D within 8 weeks, and clinical remission as an SIGH-D score of less than 7 at 8 weeks. We found an association between rs766288 in TSNAX and female MDD in the allele/genotype analysis. However, we did not find any association between TSNAX and BP or the fluvoxamine therapeutic response in MDD in the allele/genotype analysis or haplotype analysis. Our results suggest that rs766288 in TSNAX may play a role in the pathophysiology of female MDD in the Japanese population. A replication study using larger samples may be required for conclusive results, since our sample size was small.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
7Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2011 Aug 35: 1618-22
TitleLack of association between translin-associated factor X gene (TSNAX) and methamphetamine dependence in the Japanese population.
AbstractRecently, we detected that the prokineticin 2 receptor gene was associated with not only major depressive disorder (MDD) but also methamphetamine dependence. Therefore, it is possible that mood disorders and drug addiction have shared susceptibility genes. The translin-associated factor X gene (TSNAX)/disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 gene (DISC1) has been associated with psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, MDD and bipolar disorder. TSNAX is located immediately upstream of DISC1 and has been shown to undergo intergenic splicing with DISC1. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that TSNAX might be a good candidate gene for methamphetamine dependence.
We conducted a case-control study of Japanese individuals (215 with methamphetamine dependence and 318 age- and sex-matched controls) with three tagging SNPs (rs1630250, rs766288 and rs6662926) selected by HapMap database.
rs1630250 was associated in males with methamphetamine dependence in the allele analysis (P-value: 0.0253). However, these results did not remain significant after Bonferroni correction to adjust for multiple comparisons (corrected P-value: 0.152).
Our findings suggest that TSNAX does not play a role in methamphetamine dependence in the Japanese population. A replication study using larger samples needs to be conducted to obtain conclusive results.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
8J. Hum. Genet. 2012 Aug 57: 475-6
TitleA commentary on the gender-specific association of TSNAX/DISC1 locus for schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder in South Indian population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
9J. Hum. Genet. 2012 Aug 57: 523-30
TitleGender-specific association of TSNAX/DISC1 locus for schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder in South Indian population.
AbstractGenetic association studies have implicated the TSNAX/DISC1 (disrupted in schizophrenia 1) in schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) and major depression. This study was performed to assess the possible involvement of TSNAX/DISC1 locus in the aetiology of BPAD and SCZ in the Southern Indian population. We genotyped seven single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) from TSNAX/DISC1 region in 1252 individuals (419 BPAD patients, 408 SCZ patients and 425 controls). Binary logistic regression revealed a nominal association for rs821616 in DISC1 for BPAD and also combined cases of BPAD or SCZ, but after correcting for multiple testing, these results were non-significant. However, significant association was observed with BPAD, as well as combined cases of BPAD or SCZ, within the female subjects for the rs766288 after applying false discovery rate corrections at the 0.05 level. Two-locus analysis showed C-C (rs766288-rs2812393) as a risk combination in BPAD, and G-T (rs2812393-rs821616) as a protective combination in SCZ and combined cases of BPAD or SCZ. Female-specific associations were observed for rs766288-rs2812393, rs766288-rs821616 and rs8212393-rs821616 in two-locus analysis. Our results provide further evidence for sex-dependent effects of the TSNAX/DISC1 locus in the aetiology of SCZ and BPAD.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
10Carcinogenesis 2014 Dec 35: 2687-97
TitleIdentification of chimeric TSNAX-DISC1 resulting from intergenic splicing in endometrial carcinoma through high-throughput RNA sequencing.
AbstractGene fusion is among the primary processes that generate new genes and has been well characterized as potent pathway of oncogenesis. Here, by high-throughput RNA sequencing in nine paired human endometrial carcinoma (EC) and matched non-cancerous tissues, we obtained that chimeric translin-associated factor X-disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (TSNAX-DISC1) occurred significantly upregulated in multiple EC samples. Experimental investigation showed that TSNAX-DISC1 appears to be formed by splicing without chromosomal rearrangement. The chimera expression inversely correlated with the binding of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) to the insulators. Subsequent investigations indicate that long intergenic non-coding RNA lincRNA-NR_034037, separating TSNAX from DISC1, regulates TSNAX -DISC1 production and TSNAX/DISC1 expression levels by extricating CTCF from insulators. Dysregulation of TSNAX influences steroidogenic factor-1-stimulated transcription on the StAR promoter, altering progesterone actions, implying the association with cancer. Together, these results advance our understanding of the mechanism in which lincRNA-NR_034037 regulates TSNAX-DISC1 formation programs that tightly regulate EC development.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
11J Affect Disord 2014 Oct 168: 91-7
TitleDISC1-TSNAX and DAOA genes in major depression and citalopram efficacy.
AbstractMajor depressive disorder (MDD) is a common disease with high morbidity and still unsatisfying treatment response. Both MDD pathogenesis and antidepressant effect are supposed to be strongly affected by genetic polymorphisms. Among promising candidate genes, distrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), translin-associated factor X (TSNAX) and D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA) were suggested since their regulator role in neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity and neurotransmission, and previous evidence of cross-involvement in major psychiatric diseases.
The present paper investigated the role of 13 SNPs within the reported genes in MDD susceptibility through a case-control (n=320 and n=150, respectively) study and in citalopram efficacy (n=157). Measures of citalopram efficacy were response (4th week) and remission (12th week). Pharmacogenetic findings were tested in the STAR(?)D genome-wide dataset (n=1892) for replication.
Evidence of association among rs3738401 (DISC1), rs1615409 and rs766288 (TSNAX) and MDD was found (p=0.004, p=0.0019, and p=0.008, respectively). A trend of association between remission and DISC1 rs821616 and DAOA rs778294 was detected, and confirmation was found for rs778294 by repeated-measure ANOVA (p=0.0008). In the STAR(?)D a cluster of SNPs from 20 to 40Kbp from DISC1 findings in the original sample was associated with citalopram response, as well as rs778330 (12,325bp from rs778294).
Relatively small size of the original sample and focus on only three candidate genes.
The present study supported a role of DISC1-TSNAX variants in MDD susceptibility. On the other hand, genetic regions around DAOA rs778294 and DISC1 rs6675281-rs1000731 may influence citalopram efficacy.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia