1J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2004 May 89-90: 557-60
TitleVitamin D3-implications for brain development.
AbstractThere is growing evidence that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) is active in the brain but until recently there was a lack of evidence about its role during brain development. Guided by certain features of the epidemiology of schizophrenia, our group has explored the role of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in brain development using whole animal models and in vitro culture studies. The expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the embryonic rat brain rises steadily between embryonic day 15-23, and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) induces the expression of nerve growth factor and stimulates neurite outgrowth in embryonic hippocampal explant cultures. In the neonatal rat, low prenatal vitamin D(3) in utero leads to increased brain size, altered brain shape, enlarged ventricles, reduced expression of nerve growth factors, reduced expression of the low affinity p75 receptor and increased cellular proliferation. In summary, there is growing evidence that low prenatal levels of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can influence critical components of orderly brain development. It remains to be seen if these processes are of clinical relevance in humans, but in light of the high rates of hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women and neonates, this area warrants further scrutiny.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2004 Mar 28: 255-66
TitleIs vitamin D hypothesis for schizophrenia valid? Independent segregation of psychosis in a family with vitamin-D-dependent rickets type IIA.
AbstractThe vitamin D hypothesis of schizophrenia is a recent concept bringing together old observations on environmental risk factors and new findings on the neurodevelopmental effects of vitamin D. Candidate genes related to the vitamin D endocrine system have not yet been fully explored for this purpose. The coexistence of vitamin-D-dependent-rickets type II with alopecia (VDDR IIA) and different forms of psychosis in the same inbred family has provided us with an opportunity to investigate the presumed relationship between vitamin D deficiency and psychosis. Psychiatric examination and molecular genetic studies were performed in this family overloaded with psychotic disorders and VDDR IIA. Forty members were evaluated in order to describe their phenotypic features. The family was tested for a linkage to the chromosome 12q12-q14 region where the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is located. Psychosis was the common phenotype in the 18 psychiatrically affected members. Pedigree analysis did not show a cosegregation of psychosis and rickets. Lod scores were not significant to prove a linkage between psychosis and VDR locus. The authors concluded that (1) the neurodevelopmental consequences of vitamin D deficiency do not play a causative role in psychotic disorders, (2) these two syndromes are inherited independently, and (3) vitamin D deficiency does not act as a risk factor in subjects susceptible to psychosis.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
3Minerva Med. 2012 Oct 103: 383-91
TitleVitamin D receptor FokI genotype may modify the susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder by regulation of dopamine D1 receptor gene expression.
AbstractThis study is designed to test association of FOKI polymorphism in Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and its potential effect on expression of dopamine D1 receptor in schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder as well as in healthy individuals.
In this case-control study 196 patient with schizophrenia, 119 patients with bipolar mood disorder and 192 healthy individuals as the control group were recruited. All psychiatric disorders were diagnosed according to DSM IV criteria. Healthy control group denied any family history of such disorders. FOKI was genotyped by means of PCR-RFLP method. The mRNA was extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the cDNA was synthesized.
Frequency of ff genotype was more common in patients with bipolar disorders compared to the healthy control group (Odds ratio=1.84, 95% CI; 0.81 to 4.17) with increased relative risk (Relative risk=1.31, CI 95%; 0.86 to 1.99). There were significant differences between relative expressions of dopamine D1 receptor gene in various genotypes. Our results indicated that the ff genotype was associated with lower expression of dopamine D1 receptor gene.
VDR as a nuclear receptor may contribute to bipolar disorders via modification of the expression of the neurotransmitters receptor such as dopamine.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
4Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 2013 Apr 33: 309-12
TitleRepeated haloperidol administration has no effect on vitamin D signaling but increase retinoid X receptors and Nur77 expression in rat prefrontal cortex.
AbstractBoth vitamin D (VD) signaling and Nur77 are implicated in dopaminergic neurotransmission and dopamine-related neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency rats exhibit schizophrenia-like behaviors and disturbance of dopamine system, which could be partly normalized by haloperidol treatment. By blocking dopamine D2 receptor, haloperidol induces Nur77 expression, suggesting a modulatory role of Nur77 in brain dopamine system. Rxr is the heterodimeric partner of both Nur77 and vitamin D receptor and also participates in homeostatic regulation of central dopamine neurotransmission. Although D2 antagonist-induced Nur77 expression has been reported by several studies, the change of its active partner Rxr remains elusive. Here, we studied the impact of 2 weeks administration of haloperidol on VD signaling and Nur77/Rxr expression in rat prefrontal cortex. It was found that haloperidol has no effect on local VD signaling, but could significantly increase Nur77, Rxr?, and Rxr? expression, which indicated that Nur77/Rxr, but not VDR/Rxr, was implicated in dopamine-related neuroadaptation. Given that VD deficiency is commonly observed in schizophrenia patients, the renal metabolism of VD was also examined.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
5Neuroscience 2015 Sep 304: 90-100
TitleVitamin D regulates tyrosine hydroxylase expression: N-cadherin a possible mediator.
AbstractVitamin D is a neuroactive steroid. Its genomic actions are mediated via the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The VDR emerges in the rat mesencephalon at embryonic day 12, representing the peak period of dopaminergic cell birth. Our prior studies reveal that developmental vitamin D (DVD)-deficiency alters the ontogeny of dopaminergic neurons in the developing mesencephalon. There is also consistent evidence from others that 1,25(OH)2D3 promotes the survival of dopaminergic neurons in models of dopaminergic toxicity. In both developmental and toxicological studies it has been proposed that 1,25(OH)2D3 may modulate the differentiation and maturation of dopaminergic neurons; however, to date there is lack of direct evidence. The aim of the current study is to investigate this both in vitro using a human SH-SY5Y cell line transfected with rodent VDR and in vivo using a DVD-deficient model. Here we show that in VDR-expressing SH-SY5Y cells, 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly increased production of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. This effect was dose- and time-dependent, but was not due to an increase in TH-positive cell number, nor was it due to the production of trophic survival factors for dopamine neurons such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In accordance with 1,25(OH)2D3's anti-proliferative actions in the brain, 1,25(OH)2D3 reduced the percentage of dividing cells from approximately 15-10%. Given the recently reported role of N-cadherin in the direct differentiation of dopaminergic neurons, we examined here whether it may be elevated by 1,25(OH)2D3. We confirmed this in vitro and more importantly, we showed DVD-deficiency decreases N-cadherin expression in the embryonic mesencephalon. In summary, in our in vitro model we have shown 1,25(OH)2D3 increases TH expression, decreases proliferation and elevates N-cadherin, a potential factor that mediates these processes. Accordingly all of these findings are reversed in the developing brain in our DVD-deficiency model. Remarkably our findings in the DVD-deficiency model phenocopy those found in a recent model where N-cadherin was regionally ablated from the mesencephalon. This study has, for the first time, shown that vitamin D directly modulates TH expression and strongly suggests N-cadherin may be a plausible mediator of this process both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings may help to explain epidemiological data linking DVD deficiency with schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
6J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2016 Apr 158: 178-88
TitleMotor neuron-like NSC-34 cells as a new model for the study of vitamin D metabolism in the brain.
AbstractVitamin D3 is a pro-hormone, which is sequentially activated by 25- and 1?-hydroxylation to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] and 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1?,25(OH)2D3], respectively. Subsequent inactivation is performed by 24-hydroxylation. These reactions are carried out by a series of CYP450 enzymes. The 25-hydroxylation involves mainly CYP2R1 and CYP27A1, whereas 1?-hydroxylation and 24-hydroxylation are catalyzed by CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, respectively, and are tightly regulated to maintain adequate levels of the active vitamin D hormone, 1?,25(OH)2D3. Altered circulating vitamin D levels, in particular 25(OH)D3, have been linked to several disorders of the nervous system, e.g., schizophrenia and Parkinson disease. However, little is known about the mechanisms of vitamin D actions in the neurons. In this study, we examined vitamin D metabolism and its regulation in a murine motor neuron-like hybrid cell line, NSC-34. We found that these cells express mRNAs for the four major CYP450 enzymes involved in vitamin D activation and inactivation, and vitamin D receptor (VDR) that mediates vitamin D actions. We also found high levels of CYP24A1-dependent 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25(OH)2D3] production, that was inhibited by the well-known CYP enzyme inhibitor ketoconazole and by several inhibitors that are more specific for CYP24A1. Furthermore, CYP24A1 mRNA levels in NSC-34 cells were up-regulated by 1?,25(OH)2D3 and its synthetic analogs, EB1089 and tacalcitol. Our results suggest that NSC-34 cells could be a novel model for the studies of neuronal vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of actions.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia