1Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2007 Apr 144B: 332-40
TitleSynaptotagmin XI as a candidate gene for susceptibility to schizophrenia.
AbstractSynaptotagmin XI (Syt11) is a member of the synaptotagmin family, which is localized in cells either in synaptic vesicles or the cellular membrane, and is known to act as a calcium sensor. The Syt11 gene is located on chromosome locus 1q21-q22, which was previously reported as a major susceptibility locus of familial schizophrenia. Here, we present evidence for an association between the number of 33-bp repeats in the promoter region of the Syt11 gene and schizophrenia. We found that the transcriptional activity of the gene is affected by the number of 33-bp repeats, which include an Sp1 binding site, suggesting that the excessive expression of Syt11 can be associated with schizophrenia. Another (single nucleotide) polymorphism in the Syt11 5'UTR region, where the potent transcription factor YY1 can bind, also affects the transcriptional activity of Syt11.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2014 Dec 95: 744-53
TitleA rare functional noncoding variant at the GWAS-implicated MIR137/MIR2682 locus might confer risk to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Abstractschizophrenia (SZ) genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified common risk variants in >100 susceptibility loci; however, the contribution of rare variants at these loci remains largely unexplored. One of the strongly associated loci spans MIR137 (miR137) andMIR2682 (miR2682), two microRNA genes important for neuronal function. We sequenced ?6.9 kb MIR137/MIR2682 and upstream regulatory sequences in 2,610 SZ cases and 2,611 controls of European ancestry. We identified 133 rare variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.5%. The rare variant burden in promoters and enhancers, but not insulators, was associated with SZ (p = 0.021 for MAF < 0.5%, p = 0.003 for MAF < 0.1%). A rare enhancer SNP, 1:g.98515539A>T, presented exclusively in 11 SZ cases (nominal p=4.8 10(-4)). We further identified its risk allele T in 2 of 2,434 additional SZ cases, 11 of 4,339 bipolar (BP) cases, and 3 of 3,572 SZ/BP study controls and 1,688 population controls; yielding combined p values of 0.0007, 0.0013, and 0.0001 for SZ, BP, and SZ/BP, respectively. The risk allele T of 1:g.98515539A>T reduced enhancer activity of its flanking sequence by >50% in human neuroblastoma cells, predicting lower expression of MIR137/MIR2682. Both empirical and computational analyses showed weaker transcription factor (YY1) binding by the risk allele. Chromatin conformation capture (3C) assay further indicated that 1:g.98515539A>T influenced MIR137/MIR2682, but not the nearby DPYD or LOC729987. Our results suggest that rare noncoding risk variants are associated with SZ and BP at MIR137/MIR2682 locus, with risk alleles decreasing MIR137/MIR2682 expression.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia